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AP Human Geography Unit 6: The Geography of Language
Unit 6-Chapter 7 The Geography of Language
Terms in this set (35)
an act or instance of transmitting information (verbal or written). By 50,000 BC prehistoric peoples had developed speech. The development on language was one of humanity's greatest achievements. *The exchange of ideas. Cave Art (Lascaux)
a system of communication using sounds, gestures, marks, and signs.
American Sigh Language, ASL
the sounds used in a spoken language
(The English Language has between 40 to 50 of these)
a type of written speech in which small pictures are sued for words.
The Rosetta Stone
a large stone discovered in 1799 with three languages inscribed in it.
Greek to Egyptian
It cracked the secret of Ancient Egyptian (deciphered)
a theory attributed to Jakob Grimm that modern German and English experienced consonant shifts since ancient times.
a collection of languages that have a common ancestor and is sub-divided into smaller branches of related languages. Languages are grouped into families through a method known as genetic classification.
the common ancestor of a family of modern languages
Evolution of Language
a group of languages from different families that share grammatical or lexical similarities because of proximity
Greek and Albanian
Major World Language Families
Indo-European, Sino-Tibetian Niger-Congo, Malayo-Polynesian, and Afro-Asiatic.
A large language family of over 440 languages, including English. The Romance Subgroup (Latin basis): Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian. The Germanic Subgroup: German, Dutch, English and Swedish
an early alphabet used by Germanic speakers before the adoption of the Latin alphabet.
variations of sound and vocabulary in a language among different places.
Border term and refers to vocabulary and grammar differences
the body of words used in a particular language.
a way a language sounds or is pronounced in a particular location
Should only be applied to sounds
language that is peculiar to a certain group or a region
often used in place of dialect
Generally, rural or provincial speech or a nonstandard form of a language
English with a Jamaican ~accent~
Located or isolated to a particular area. In terms of language, words and phrases unique to a particular region (local form)
a language used in cross-cultural communication or trade
The Business Language
Examples include: Hindi, English, French, Russian and Kiswahili (East Africa)
a simplified language that is used by people who speak different languages for common communication; usually not the primary language of anyone using it
a pidgin language that has been adopted by a group of speakers as its primary tongue
this family includes more than 250 different languages. Chinese is the most identifiable language of this family with Mandarin and Cantonese dialects. 870 million people speak Mandarin Chinese
this family includes over 370 different languages spoken primarily in North Africa and Southwest Asia. Hebrew and Arabic are part of this family.
Arabic is the language of Islam and the Koran
this is the largest language family with about 1400 languages spoken by 600 million people in Africa. Major languages include Bantu and Swahili.
there are over 1200 languages spoken in and throughout Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. One of the most unusual languages of this family includes Malagasy, spoken by the people of Madagascar.
Tie to Polynesian settlers
Received Pronunciation (RP)
considered to be the "standard" form of English, spoken in and around London and often used on British Radio and T.V.
British English or the Queen's English
a pidgin (Creole) language spoken on islands off the coast of South Carolina, and Georgia.
A mix of English and African words and sounds
the process of languages splitting into two or more distinct languages
Like branches on a tree; Latin became French, Italian, and Spanish
the process of two languages merging together
Vocabulary and grammar uses
a language that belongs to no known language family
not related to any living language; Basque (N. Spain)
the point at which a language no longer has any active followers. (The Death of a Language)
the study of a place names, and is derived from the Greek words topos meaning "place" and ounouma meaning "name".
terms used in one language that have an origin in another language.
Some cultures view them as language pollution
the aspect of culture
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