Terms in this set (89)
One of the 2 port cities where Europeans were permitted to trade with China during the Ming Dynasty.
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
wrote a memorial to the Qianlong, which was seen as unacceptable because he was english. writing memorials was a chinese right and there were many dangers and fears about outsiders learning chinese. as a result of this memorial, trade was restricted to canton.
business men working in treaty ports. They did not rely on Confucianism. They were "in betweeners" seen as Chinese 1st capitalists
Rules of Behavior
In the Canton system of trade - rules to follow when entering trade.
Lady Hughs Incident
While firing a commemorating cannon, accidentally killed someone, according to Chinese legal system, person must die regardless of accident or not, guy hid on ship, but was found and killed.
Lord Gorge Macartney
Diplomat from British, brought gifts to Qianlong, refuses to kowtow, so he cannot enter forbidden city, sends a message to china.
the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty (r. 1736-1795), in what was considered China's "Golden Age". In the mid-18th century received pressure to allow for more trade with Europe. Visited by George Macartney, who refused to perform the kowtow and bow to the emperor.
City in India that grew lots of opium, major city used in Opium trade with China.
Duke of Wellington
British general and statesman
Comissioner Lin Zexu
wanted to stop the opium shipment from the British, slowly closing the trade, destroyed all the British opium.
A British colony in China, received after the first Opium War and returned to China in 1997
Treaty of Nanjing
British got Hong Kong, 5 sea-ports were open, British get extraterritoriality, British get most-favored-nation status, both British and China treated equally.
Chinese religious leader who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth
(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
Ethnic minority people of south‑central China. Famous Hakkas include Taiping leader Hong Xiuquan and the Soong family.
Qing official who raised effective military forces against the Taiping assault on Northern China
internal tariff made with a purpose to suppress the Taiping Rebellion
pure critique, fought to keep foreigners out.
A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
Chinese scholar and nationalist who argued in favor of constitutional monarchy. Sentenced to death by the Dowager Empress, he fled to Japan.
a war fought between China and France in 1883 in which the Chinese lost control of Vietnam to the French where they established Indochina
1861-1875. He was a pretty progressive emperor and had aggreed with Kang's ideas and had tried to shift China to a constitutional monarchy. Unfortunately he wasn't able to do much because of Cixi.
Hundred Days of Reform
Launched by young chinese emperor. New laws were created that modernized civil service exams, streamline government, and encouraged new industry. Reforms also affected schools, the military and the bureaucracy. Conservatives rallied against these reforms and imprisoned the emperor.
A group of Chinese formed a secret society called The Righteous Harmonious Fists, their goal was to drive out foreign devils who were polluting the land with non traditional [Chinese] ways.
led Wuchang Uprising. Sun's ideas were popular with this young army. Problem is structure of command fragmented. Men not loyal to united cause. Ambitious for upward mobility. Modernized Qing armies- trained by western standard. Modern military academy to train officers.
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
Revive China Society
19th century revolutionary party formed by Sun Yat-sen; expel Manchus, restore Chinese rules, establish a federal republic.
Three Principles of the People
Liberal principles of nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people that was supported by Sun Yat-sen that were very democratic and western in heritage.
A group of Chinese revolutionary students who elected Sun Yat Sen their leader. The group failed ten times to overthrow the empire before the 1911 Revolution.
Chinese Nationalist Revolution
Secret societies called fists led to nickname boxers, resent missionaries and modernization, killed Christians while destroying factories. Had a rebellion where they besieged British Embassy. Caused US/Europe troops to land and to occupy Beijing. China forced to pay 330 million indemnity. Put an end to partition of China
May Fourth movement
Chinese protest movement triggered by opposition to the Treaty of Versailles; a major step in the path leading to the creation and victory of CCP.
New Cultural Movement
a protest launched by intellects at Peking University after the failure of the 1911 revolution and was aimed at abolishing remnants of the old system and introducing western values and institutions for China.
Founder of CCP, leader of New Cultural Movement (supported changes in Chinese society. positive to communism) and editor of the New Youth
Marxist periodical that did much to spread the ideas of Marx and Lenin among urban Chinese youth.
president of Beijing university, studied in Europe and served in Qing dynasty as director of education
nickname for the University of Beijing, Harvard of China
one of first faculty members appointed to Beijing University by Chen Duxi
-written language has to be like spoken language
(literary language or classical Chinese); still in use until the 20th century
Chinese nationalist party. Formed from revolutionary groups who overthrow the Qing Dynasty. Yuan Shukai was president and GMD tried to overthrow. Yuan Shikai named himself emperor. Chaing Kaishek became leader after Sun Yatsen. Launched Northern Expedition
Chinese Communist Party
Party formed in 1923 when Sun Yat-Sen merged the Third Communist International and the KMT to create the first of many liberation fronts. Cooperated with KMT during the Northern Expedition. Chiang expelled it from the KMT and killed many of its members. This front was completely anticonservative and anti-imperialist, but not fully communist. Eventually it would defeat the KMT and establish People's Republic of China under Mao Tse-tung.
In 1926, Chiang Kai-shek led Chinese nationalists to Northern China, defeating warlords along the way. It was made in an attempt to unify China.
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
KMT member who became staunch anti-communist after efforts to collaborate with CCP failed, close associate of Sun Yat-sen, known for disagreements with Chaing and formation of a Japanese-supported collaborationist government in Nanjing, known as the Chinese "Benedict Arnold"
Whampoa Military Academy
Guomindang military academy founded in 1924; with Soviet support; its 1st director was Chiang Kai-shek.
White Terror. 1927. Refers to the violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party). Following the incident, conservative KMT elements carried out a full-scale purge of Communists in all areas under their control.
fearsome mob that Chiang called when he saw CCP's army in Shanghai,
chiang kai-shek refuses to be wu's puppet, he resigns and establishes his own party in shanghai, a separatist group
"Southern Capital" established by the Emperor Hongwu of the Ming dynasty.
New name for Bejing. Meaning "northern peace"
-1927-1937 Nationalist Revolution. Strong centralized government. Nationalists have either taken control of or made a deal with the warlords. The Communists were oppressed during this time. There is a growth in the economy. Far more peaceful than warlord era., Chaing Kai-shek ruling from Nanjing
Central Bank of China
the People's Bank of China
Result of Nanjing Decade's communication system. Industrialized
New Life Movement
A movement sponsored by Chiang which sought to blend the western ideas of industrialization and nationalism (leaving the ideas of greed and such that come with capitalism) and the Confucian ideas of hard work, obedience, and moral integrity getting rid of the tradition ideas like arranged marriages, lack of women's rights, etc.) Take the good and leave the bad of both
Confucius critic, attacked the 'cannibalistic' ritual religion that stifled human freedom and individual initiative in the name of passive, conformist virtues
strong on the outside but weak on the inside
Chinese Marxist intellectual; rejected traditional view and instead saw peasants as the vanguard of socialist revolution; influenced Mao Zedong.
li dazhao's office where he did his work, known for students going their to dicuss marxism
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Mao Zedong's chief military advisor from the days of the Jiangxi soviet. He was commander in Chief of the People's Liberation Army and long time member of the Standing Committee of the communist party Politburo
campaigns understaken by the KMT to extermine Communists throughout China, five in total between 1930 and 1934
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
This was a meeting of the Communist Party of China. There was a power struggle between Mao Zedong and some leaders. As a result, Mao gained control over the military and became the leader of the Communist Party.
Where Chiang Kai Shek moves the new capital to, after Nanking is taken over by the Japanese
Period immediately following the Long March. Name of the period reflects where Mao and the CCP were headquartered at this time. Mao declares himself to be a Marxist and "thought of Mao Zedong" is created.
Taiping Initiation Ritual
allowed the marginalized groups of china to join a group to get social equality, through the voice of Jesus, which establishes loyalty
taiping policies were sexual abstention for the masses, even between husband and wives, taiping kinds had well stocked harems to provide sex at any time
The Reality of Taiping Destruction
a memorial discussing china's floundering economy, the government could not bear the costs of reconstruction brought by the devastation of the taiping movement
Kang Youwei's Three Proposals
shoud try to benefit from the experience that russia and japan had in the past, to plan for the proposed reforms must collect all talented men in the government, the governors must be allowed to conduct reforms on their own initiative
Female supporters of the Chinese Boxers who rebelled against foreign intrusions in China at the turn of the twentieth century. Most were teenage girls and unmarried women and dressed entirely in red garments.
Questions and Topics on the 1903-1904 Jinshi Degree Examiniation
The Qing Abdication Edict
yuan shikai elected by the provisional parliament to be the premier, february 12, 1912, edict passed ending 2,000 year old dynasty rule hears of majority are in favor of republican form of government
The Dog-Meat General
zhang zongzhang was basically a thug, known for his propensity for wanton violence and brutality
The Role of Youth
may fourth movement, be independent not servile, be progressive not conservative, be aggressive not retiring, be cosmopolitan not isolationist, be utilitarian not formalistic, be scientific not imaginative
What problems led to the British attempt to change the Canton system of trade?
Limitation to one port, can only trade with Canton.
What were the main consequences of the Taiping Rebellion?
Sinification of Political system, provincialism, militarization of countryside, changing position for scholar-gentry.
What long-term and short-term factors contributed to the development of Chinese nationalism in late imperial China?
Anti-Manchuism, Anti-foreignism, Chinese confucian heritage, self-strengthening movement
What were the three parts of the "Chinese Nationalist Revolution?
Military Rule, Political tutelage, constitutional Rule
Who were the three main leaders of this new intelligentsia and what were their contributions to the New Culture Movement?
Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Hushi
What challenges did the GMD government face during the Nanjing Decade?
New warlords, factionalism within GMD, CCP opposition in southeast, japanese aggression in manchuria
What were some of the major accomplishments of the Nanjing Decade?
Monetary reform, communication systmes, education, literature
In what ways did the war with Japan (1937 - 1945) change the fortunes of the GMD and the CCP?
Cut off power base, anti-japanese sentiment, opportunity for CCP