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Terms in this set (111)
how many electrons are present in a phosphorus 3+ atom?
which type of bond forms between hydrogen atoms atomic number = 1 and an oxygen atom atomic number = 8 of a water molecule?
elements found on the left side of the periodic table contain outer shells that are _______; these elements tends to form _______ in solution.
almost empty; cations
can the atomic mass of an element vary?
yes. adding or losing neutrons will change the atomic mass without forming a different element
which of these carbohydrates has a ratio of carbon:hydrogen:oxygen of 1:2:1
galactose, glucose and fructose (1,2,5)
which is a dehydration kind of reaction?
2 glucose molecules --> a disaccharide + water
what elements are found in the composition of both carbohydrate and fat molecules?
only C, H, O
on average, lipids provide about 9 calories of energy per gram, while carbohydrates only provide about 4 C/gram. this is because
the triglyceride forms (fat) of lipid contain more C-H covalent bonds than carbohydrate on average
which of the following is a characteristic of lipid molecules in water?
they are hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbon
which of the following is lowest in unsaturated fats?
a fat that is hydrogenated is ____
the basic structure of a cell membrane is composed of
a bilayer of phospholipids with interspersed cholesterol and protein molecules
which two functional groups are always found in amino acids
carboxyl and amino
in the basic structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids which of the following elements is only found in one of those four types of biomolecules?
S - proteins
the organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting as enzymes are the
two or more polypeptides chains combine to form a complex structure called a
if one strand of a DNA has the sequence AGTACTG what will be the sequence of the RNA copy made from the DNA strand?
which of the following is TRUE with regard to a DNA molecule
the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thin and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine
the nucleotide chains of DNA are held together by
the monomers used for constructing long polymer chains of nucleic acids
a nucleotide of RNA contains these components
ribose; a phosphate group; nitrogen-containing base
cellular material located outside the nucleus yet inside the plasma membrane is the
the membrane connections that prevent the leaking of fluid between cells are called
tay-sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme
the preparation of secretory vesicles for export from the cell is the responsibility of the
which of the following statements is NOT part of the cell theory?
the surface area to volume ratio is greater for larger cells than smaller cells
the passive process that involves the movement of water through aquaporins is
the phospholipid tails are _____, which make the plasma membrane impermeable to water
non polar and hydrophobic
which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?
the cell shown below has been placed into a(n) ______ solution
its inflammation causes pain known as heartburn
produces the enzyme pepsin?
which produces a detergent-like substance that helps break down fats?
secretions from this organ raises the pH of chyme (food) coming from the stomach
produces digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin
where does chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin?
bile is produced by the _____ and stored in _______
the many functions of pancreatic juice in the digestive system include:
aids the digestion of starch, facilitates digestion of protein, neutralizes acid from stomach, aids the digestion of fats (all of the above)
a primary function(s) of the lymphatic system is(are)
to absorb excess fluid in tissues and return it as lymph to the circulatory system, provide lymphocytes as an immune response to threats to the body, helps maintain blood volume (a, b, c)
which is NOT considered as a lymphoid organ?
T/F the thoracic duct is where lymph is returned to the major arteries near the heart
T/F leakage of lymph from collecting lymphatic vessels is prevented by a myelin sheath surrounding the vessels
T/F the lacteals are specialized lymph capillaries that collect and return to the venous blood stream digested lipids from the small intestine
back flow of lymph in lymphatic vessels is prevented by valve like flaps in the interior walls of these vessels
the term lymphoma refers to swollen tissue due to a blockage of lymph drainage
the immune system includes the concentration of phagocytic macrophages in lymph nodes found throughout the body
which of the following are characteristic of the sympathetic system
inhibits the digestive tract, dilates the bronchi, accelerates heart beat
when one responds to being tapped on the shoulder, what is the sequence of neuron type involvement?
sensory neuron...interneuron...motor neuron
the part of the brain concerned with fundamental needs such as survival, fear, dominance and mating
higher thought process for learning and memory are primarily in the
T/F in the central nervous system, myelin coverings are made by oligodendrite neuroglia; Schwann cells produce the myelin coverings in the peripheral nervous system
T/F astrocytes are specialized type of macrophage cells in the central nervous system that have a phagocytic role
T/F the left side of your brain is responsible for logic, numbers, lists and analysis
T/F muscle coordination and memory of physical skills like dancing is developed in the cerebellum of the brain
which hormone receptor site is incorrectly matched with the type of hormone
membrane receptor - steroid hormone like testosterone
what stores oxytocin
what releases antidiuretic hormone
posterior pituitary or anterior pituitary
what produces leptin
what stimulates red blood cell production
what targets cells in testes
follicle stimulating hormone
thyroid hormones regulate body metabolism, heart and digestion functions. the endocrine gland(s) involved either directly or indirectly in the release of thyroid hormones is(are) the
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and thyroid
osteoporosis (an increase in bone porosity which reduces bone strength) most likely results from
increased PTH secretion
what forms filtrate
what reabsorbs nutrients
what concentrates wastes
where is urea reabsorbed
what extends down into medulla
loop of Henle
what is the correct sequence from the initial formation of filtrate to the elimination of urine from the body
glomerulus --> loop of Henle --> distal tubule --> collecting duct --> ureters --> urethra
normally, glucose is
filtered and reabsorbed, but not secreted
the body has redundant ways to counter changes in blood volume/pressure. One process involves the heart's response to an increase in blood pressure. What is the hormone and where is released from?
atrial natriuretic factor released from the atrial tissue of the heart
the transportation of blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart is known as ____ circulation
oxygenated blood nourishing the myocardium comes from vessels that branch off the aorta called ____
which valve is closed during heart relaxation to prevent blood from back flowing from the aorta into the heart?
aortic semilunar valve
given the stroke volume of 70ml/beat and a heart rate of 75 beats/minute, which of the following is the closest approximate cardiac output of an average?
assuming an average person has a blood volume of about 6 liters, how frequently does one's entire blood supply pass through the heart while at rest?
less than once every minute
what large blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?
the alternating expansion and recoil of an artery that occurs with each beat of the left ventricle creates a pressure wave known as a ______
the influence of a blood vessel's diameter on peripheral resistance is:
very large since peripheral is directly influenced by the diameter of a blood vessel's lumen
fluid tends to be forced out of a capillary bed by ____ while ____
blood pressure; osmotic pressure
immediately following strenuous and vigorous exercise, which of the following is most likely to occur?
capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood
which term is inclusive of the others
cutaneous membrane is inclusive of the dermis, epidermis, subcutaneous layer, and hypodermis
the plea and pericardium are examples of _____ membranes that cover organs in a body cavity closed to the exterior
which of the following are pigments that contribute to skin color?
melanin; carotene; hemoglobin
the sebaceous and sweat glands associated with the skin are classified as _____ glands because they release secretions to the skin's surface via ducts
the type of sweat glands associated with the skin are classified as ______ glands because they release secretion to the skin's surface via ducts
the type of sweat gland whose secretions are most responsible for "body odor"?
what type of burn involves injury to the superficial epidermis only?
which of the following is a skin cancer that accounts for 80% of all skin cancer cases and affects the cells of stratum basal?
basal cell carcinoma
the tanning effect that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to the increased presence of _____
which of the following is an indication of melanoma
a pigmented spot that contains areas of different colors
the correct pathway air flows through the respiratory system is _____
nose --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea main (primary) --> bronchi
what portions of the brain contain respiratory centers and set the breathing rate?
medulla nd pons
what is the most common transport method for carbon dioxide?
what cell type makes up the walls of alveoli?
the rate of gaseous exchange is directly proportional to the _____ of the respiratory ____ and inversely proportional to the ____ through which O2/CO2 must move
surface area...respiratory surface...distance
what are the smallest conducting passageways of the lungs?
the respiratory conducting passageways perform all the following functions EXCEPT ___
what sweeps contaminated mucus from the nasal cavity to the throat?
the pharynogotympanic tubes which drain the middle ear, open into the _____
which of these disorders is related to loss of elasticity of the lungs?
chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that respond to many irritants are characteristic of _____
which of the following cell types are considered as mature bone cells?
the axial skeleton consists of bone of the:
skull, thoracic cage and vertebral column
in adults, the function of the yellow marrow is to ______
store adipose tissue
mothers who breast-feed their children will lose a percentage of calcium from their bones. which hormones is responsible for raising blood calcium levels when they drop below homeostatic levels?
from superior to inferior, what is the correct order of the vertebrae?
cervical, throracic, lumbar
when growing bones widen though appositional growth, what kind of cells add bone matrix to the outside of the diaphysis?
the presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that _____
bone length is increasing
what does collagen provide as a component of bone?
the canal that runs through the core of each osteon contains
blood vessels and nerve fibers
there are four stages in the healing of a bone fracture. Which of the following best illustrates the sequence of these stages?
1. hematoma formation 2. fibrocartilage callus formation 3. bony callus formation 4. bone remodeling
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