32 terms

AICP Exam Prep - Housing

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Public Health Movement
The second half of the 1800's was the time of what type of housing movement?
Model Tenement
1855; first tenement of its kind
Built in New York City
Dumbbell Tenement
was built in 1879; This form of housing was built throughout New York City but often had poor lighting, little air, and little space.
Tenement Housing Act of 1867
New York City pass this ordinance required new tenement buildings to provide a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures, windows that open into the shaft, two toilets on each floor, and a one square yard window in each room.

This represented the first major housing code in the United States.
Jacob Riis
who published in 1890 "How the Other Half Lives" which highlighted the plight of the poor in New York.
Tenement House Law of 1901
City of New York outlawed dumbbell tenements. The new housing code was vigorously enforced by the City. The City required inspection and permits for construction and alterations. It also required wide light and air areas between buildings and toilets and running water in each apartment unit. New buildings must be built with outward-facing windows in every room, an open courtyard, proper ventilation systems, indoor toilets, and fire safeguards.
Neighborhood Unit Concept
Clarence Perry in 1920 defined as part of the New York Regional Plan. A neighborhood based on a five minute walking radius. At the center is a school. Each neighborhood is approximately 160 acres.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
created in 1934. Provided 85 percent of the cost of public housing projects. This represented the first federally supported public housing program. How the Great Depression was combated.
National Housing Act
passed by Congress in 1934. It established the Federal Housing Administration with the purpose of insuring home mortgages.
Resettlement Administration
in 1935, used New Deal funds to develop new towns. Greendale, WI, Greenhills, OH, and Greenbelt, MD, are all in existence today. In addition, 99 other communities were planned.
U.S. Housing Act
in 1937, provided $500 million in home loans for the development of low-cost housing. This Act tied slum clearance to public housing.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act
in 1944, commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
Housing Act of 1949
was the first comprehensive housing legislation passed. The Act called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units and emphasized slum clearance.
Housing Act of 1954
called for slum prevention and urban renewal. The Act provided funding for planning for cities under 25,000 population. The 701 funds were later expanded to allow for statewide, interstate, and regional planning.
Housing Act of 1959
made federal matching funds available for comprehensive planning at the metropolitan, regional, state, and interstate levels.
Housing Act of 1961
provided interest subsidies to nonprofit organizations, limited-dividend corporations, cooperatives, and public agencies for the construction of public housing projects for low and moderate income families to rent.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
was formed in 1965, through the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965. The act also put into place rent subsidies for the poor, home loans at reduced interest rates, and subsidies for public housing projects.
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act
In 1966, was the launch of the model cities program. The Act provided financial incentives for coordinated metro area planning for open spaces, water supply, sewage disposal, and mass transit. It also established a loan guarantee program to encourage the development of "new communities." The Civil Rights Act of 1968 made racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing illegal.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
provided for the construction of 6 million subsidized housing units. The Act also authorized monthly subsidies for private houses for low income families.
Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission
In 1970 Ohio adopted a housing plan that called for low and moderate income housing to be allocated on a fair share basis.
Pruitt-Igoe Project
In 1972, was demolished in Saint Louis. The demolition of this public housing project marked a shift away from high-rise concentrated public housing.
Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG)
was created in 1974 under the Housing and Community Development Act. This grant program provides great flexibility for communities to use these federal funds for the improvement of blighted areas.It consolidated six categorical urban programs into one. Additionally, the Act created the Section 8 program that provides rent subsidies for low-income housing.
National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act of 1974
regulated manufactured housing units and prohibited municipalities from regulating manufactured homes through the building code. The homes could be regulated in terms of location, size, and appearance. This act applied to all manufactured homes built in 1976 or later.
Urban Development Action Grant Program (UDAG)
was authorized under the 1977 amendments to the 1974 Housing and Community Development Act. The program promoted public-private partnerships for redevelopment of urban areas. It also required intergovernmental cooperation in the placement of projects. Finally, it cut funding for the Section 701 comprehensive planning program.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990
created the HOME program, which provides funds for housing rehabilitation.
HOPE VI
was passed by Congress in 1992. The program provided funds for the redevelopment of severely distressed public housing. It also allowed for the demolition of public housing as well as the construction of new public housing. The result has been a de-concentration of public housing.
Consolidated Plan
Beginning in 1995, the HUD required local communities to prepare a this in order to receive funding from a number of HUD programs. It is a collaborative process whereby a community establishes a unified vision for community development actions. It is a means to analyze the entire community and explore the linkages to the larger region. It builds on local assets and coordinates a response to the needs of the community.

It integrates economic, physical, and human development in a comprehensive and coordinated fashion so that individuals, families, neighborhoods, and communities can work together and thrive.
1. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)
2.HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME)
3.Emergency Shelter Grant (ESG)
4.Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA)
A consolidated planning process replaces the planning and application requirements for?
Consolidated Plan
both a process and a document. It is a process through which a community identifies its housing, homeless and community development needs and establishes multi-year goals, priorities and strategies and an annual action plan for addressing those needs. It is also a public document that details a community's community development and housing profile, needs assessment and barriers to meeting needs, an inventory of local institutions and resources, long-term strategic plan, annual action plan, and program performance reports.
Sweat equity
is the interest or increased value in a property earned from labor put towards the restoration of a property. Habitat for Humanity is an example of this program, helping families become homeowners by contributing hours of labor towards the construction of a home.
Urban homesteading
has been used by a number of cities to encourage residents to occupy and renovate vacant properties, such as Detroit. HUD allows for federally owned properties to be sold to homesteaders.
Workforce housing
ncreasingly popular among planners,government administrators, and housing activists. It is also gaining cachet with home builders, developers, and lenders. Refers to affordable housing. It ensures that teachers, nurses, police officers, and others can afford housing in the community. The term has much less social stigma than affordable housing.