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Politics of Canada
Social 30-2: Chapter 11
Terms in this set (88)
Authoritarian Political Systems
Political systems where decisions that are related to governing the state are made by a small group of people or by one person.
Two or more parties must work together to form the government.
Consensus Decision Making
A form of decision making in which people within a group share ideas, concerns, and solutions that all members can accept.
A type of democracy in which people participate directly in decision making.
What does direct democracy operates on the belief on?
That the voice of each citizen is necessary for an equal and orderly society.
First Past the Post
An electoral system in which the candidate with the most votes in an electoral district wins the election.
What is first past the post be contrasted with?
Proportional representation that is used in liberalist democracies.
Organizations that try to influence elected officials.
What are the goals of interest groups?
Goals can include encouraging legislation that reflects their own beliefs and values to prevent the passing of legislation that may conflict with their beliefs.
A government that is formed by the party that holds more than half of the seats in the House of Commons or in a provincial legislature.
When a government is formed by a party that holds less than half of the seats in the House of Commons/provincial legislature but still has the most seats out of any other party.
Idea that all members of a political party should be loyal and should support the decisions of their party, and also vote accordingly to their party's position.
A direct vote by the citizens on a specific question asked to them from the government in order to determine their wishes.
A system in voting in which citizens vote for a party and the representatives of each party are assigned to the legislature based on the party's popularity within that riding.
A special type of vote in which citizens are able to vote on an important issue presented by the government.
A referendum is a form of what type of democracy?
Form of representative democracy.
Representation by Population (Rep-By-Pop)
A form of political representation where a country is divided into voting districts/constituencies with primarily the same amount of voters per district.
A form of democratic government in which citizens elect candidates that will represent them in parliament and make decisions on their behalf.
Will of the People
The collective wishes of the people from a state.
What will a democratic government do with the will of the people?
A democratic government will generally try to determine these wishes and make decisions based off of them.
Democratic governments are expected to organize society based on...?
On the wishes of the people.
Democracies focus on what kind of values?
Liberal values (like individual rights) when making decisions, respecting the will of the people.
Democracies are typically made up of elected representatives who consider what?
The will of the people.
Benefits Included in Representatives Democracies
- Allows for public input, providing representation that reflects a range of the opinions of the public, and holds the actions of the politicians accountable to the voters.
- The political party with the most amount of votes forms the government and will determine the direction of the country.
- Rules and regulations are put into place to enforce fair voting, like making sure it aligns with democratic principles (not forcing people into voting, making sure it is anonymous).
- The purpose of rules and regulations for voting is to ensure that the elected government is what is truly wanted by the people.
What are some down sides to direct democracies?
Can be very time consuming as people are directly involved in decisions.
Most modern countries are representative democracies due to what challenges?
- Of getting many people across a large distance to make decisions.
- Would have a lot of time and effort due to research and understanding of every issue.
Rep-By-Pop is based on what belief?
That each citizen has one vote and each elected representatives should represent the same number of voters like other voters.
How are provinces, territories, and countries are divided into voting districts equally?
By having the same amount of voters in each district.
A representative that gets more than half of the votes will do what?
Represent the people who live in that riding.
One riding equals...
One seat in the House of Commons.
How is proportional representation more democratic than first past the post?
It is more democratic than First Past the Post as every voter helps create the final make-up of the assembly, rather than voting for one candidate.
Many disagree with proportional representation as it may result in...? Why is this bad?
a minority government or coalition, and have proven to be less effective and stable than a majority government.
Why would a majority government may be able to achieve more?
As they have less opposition.
Loss of Confidence
If a government loses an important vote, then it must resign. Has lost the confidence of the majority of the people in the House of Commons.
A candidate can also run without being in a member of a political party.
MP's are expected to vote on an issue based on what?
What they think their constituents would vote.
How can an MP that votes based on their constituents lead to conflict? What happens next?
Can lead to a conflict of interest if their party believes in something different than what the people believe. MP's then can argue the case within their own party, and when a consensus is reached, they must vote the same collectively as one party (party solidarity).
Job is to ensure party loyalty of the MP's.
Where party members are free to vote as they choose with their parties.
Why can free votes be controversial?
Can be controversial as the party cannot agree to a party policy.
Free Vote on Abolishment of the Capital Punishment
- MP's voted 131:124 in favour for abolishing capital punishment, being one of the closest votes in Canadian parliamentary history.
- Even though the Liberals introduced the bill to get rid of the death penalty, 37 out of 141 voted against it, and 16 out of 95 of Conservatives voted for it.
Why does the opposition question the Cabinet on its decisions during question period?
Keeps the government on their toes to make sure that they're passing the best decision.
Some people claim that arguing and critiquing the government demonstrates the lack of ___ in the government.
Journalists typically broadcast stories that will cause a government to...?
Reconsider their actions.
Referendums and plebiscites are typically forms of direct democracy which can be used in...?
Referendums and plebiscites are the best way to get to know the...?
Will of the people.
The Charlottetown Accord
- The Accord dealt with the share of power between different forms of government, recognizing Quebec as its own distinct society, and granting Aboriginal self-government and representation in government.
- A national referendum was held, and 54% of Canadians voted for revisions of the Constitution of Canada.
Examples of Aboirginal Consensus Decision Making
sentencing circles, talking circle, restorative justice implementation
Restorative Justice Programs
The voluntary participation of the victim and the offender and the members of the community to reach a consensus about the sentence for the offender.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME)
Addresses concerns such as air pollution and toxic waste.
Those who support consensus decision making state...?
That it promotes equality and inclusiveness as everyone can participate in a discussion.
Those who do not support consensus decision making state...?
That there may never be a decision from those who are affected as it is time consuming and emotionally demanding.
Interests groups try to encourage legislation that reflect what?
Their own beliefs or to prevent the legislation of something that goes against their own beliefs.
What do groups in society do when they feel that they are not being heard?
They may create protests or riots.
Protests and riots are expressions of what of the people?
Frustrations that people feel when they may be ignored by government institutions or a desire to raise importance to an issue.
When a liberal democracy goes through an urgency, it may need to disregard what? Why?
Some liberal values like the will of the people due to the need for solutions.
Why would the demands of the people may be ignored by the government in a crisis?
In order for government officials to focus more on the bigger issue.
The 1917 Conscription Crisis in Quebec
At first, many people volunteered in the Canadian military, but as the war progressed more people were needed and conscription was needed.
Who rejected the conscription in Canada? Why
Many Francophones in Quebec felt that this was Britain's war and did not see why Canada needed to participate in it.
Military Service Act
Made service mandatory for all male citizens between 20 and 45.
Who were exempt from serving?
- Were those working in critical industries like munitions factory and farms, peoples whose religions forbade them to fight and kill, and others where their absence would cause hardship such as an only son.
What did the mob do after they formed? Could the police do anything?
A mob formed and burned the Military Service Act and then to English owned businesses. The police were ineffective in stopping it, and another anti-conscription riot broke out.
Why did some Americans fly to Canada during the "War on Terror"?
Fled to Canada to escape conscription.
What would happen to the resistars if they were to get caught?
In 2008, there were 200 American war registrars and could face up to five years in jail, dishonourable discharge, and loss of pay and benefits.
What did Canadian citizens say about the war resistrars?
Favoured the war registrars to stay in Canada, and the NDP put a motion into the House of Commons.
War Measures Act
A piece of Canadian legislation that had allowed for the government to suspend civil rights/liberties for national security.
How was the War Measures Act used as a response to?
Was used during the October Crisis as a response to the kidnapping by the FLQ.
Le Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ)
A radical separatist group who was responsible for the bombings in Quebec.
After the October Crisis and an introduction to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the government had to re-examine what?
Their usage of power throughout crises.
What replaced the War Measures Act?
The Emergencies Act replaced the War Measures Act.
The Emergencies Act
Authorizes the taking of special temporary measures for the safety of citizens during national emergencies.
The Emergencies Act covers four types of emergencies like...?
Public welfare (natural disasters), international (threats from other countries), public order (security threats), and war emergencies.
The Emergencies Act includes restrictions for when the government...?
Can suspend civil liberties and provides Parliament the right to review emergency powers, and making the government accountable.
The Anti-Terrorism Act
- Passed in 2001 after the terrorist attack, 9/11 on the United States.
- Act defines terrorism and makes it punishable under the Canadian Criminal Code.
How can the Anti-Terrorism Act be controversial?
It allows for the temporary suspension of individual rights for those who are suspected of being involved in terrorist activities or having knowledge about them.
Are leaders of authoritarian political systems are not worried about the will of the people? Why?
No, because they are driven by their own beliefs of what society should be life.
Who makes the decisions in an authoritarian political system?
The leader's make the decisions for the people.
Who makes the decisions in a democratic political system?
The people elect leaders to make decisions for them.
Traits of Authoritarianism
- Power is held by the leader and the people must acknowledge them as so.
- Individual rights and values are not highly valued, as the citizen must obey to the society/state.
- Political participation of the people are limited and are controlled.
Military is used to do what in an authoritarian country?
To control, and may intervene in political matters like arresting opponents or those who speak out.
Where a king/queen/monarch inherits the right to rule based on tradition or religious beliefs.
True power remained with the who? Why?
King, no constitution limits the powers of the monarch or gives rights to the people.
Where military leaders control all of the key positions of politics, and are usually formed by overthrowing the previous government.
What is the most common form of authoritarian government?
Do civilians have any power in a military dictatorship?
How do military dictatorship collect power?
Frequently declare emergencies to suspend liberties from the citizens.
A form of government in which a small group of people have control over the majority of the population.
The National Party government in South Africa
- Allowed only white South Americans to have citizenship, and used an "apartheid" system that divided people based on race.
- Withdrew ownership, mobility rights, and many other liberties from non-white South Africans.
- Only people of the white minority could run and vote for office.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Social 30-2: Chapter 12
Social 30-2: Chapter 13
Social 30-2: Chapter 10
Social 30-2: Chapter 1
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