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83 terms

Psychology Exam 2

STUDY
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Sensation
process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy (passive process--we dont dont have consciously think about it)
Sensation comes in the form of
seeings, hearing, touch, smell taste, kinesthesis
Perception
a process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Bottom-Up Processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integrating of sensory information
-senses receive it first
i.e. go into fishing store and see/smell fishing bait, then you know you can buy bait there
Top-Down Processing
guided by higher-level mental processes
-when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
-use experience/mind first
i.e. mind says "I remember I've been fishing", then you see/smell the bait
Psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
i.e. light-brightness pressure-weight taste-sweet
Absolute Threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus
-stimulus needed for detection 50% of the time
i.e. volume on tv when partner is sleeping
i.e. faintest thing you can hear, softest touch you can feel
Sensory Adaptation
diminished sensitivity with constant stimulation
senses adapt to: loud concert, pool water, dark movie theater
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy to another
wavelength
the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next
hue
dimension of color determined by wavelength of light
intensity
amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude
-brightness & loudness
Cornea
transparent tissue where the light enters the eye
pupil
adjustable opening in the center of the eye
Iris
(color) a ring of muscle that forms the colored portion of the eye and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images o the retina
Accommodation
change in the shape of lens; focus near objects
-helps with focusing on information
Retina
-inner surface of eye
-light sensitive
-layers of neurons
beginning of visual information processing
Retina's Blind Spot
an area without receptor cells where the optic nerve leaves the eye
Retina's Cones
-color
-near center of retina (fovea)
-fine detail and color vision
daylight/well-lit conditions
Retina's Rods
-black&white
-peripheral retina
-detect black, white & gray
-twilight/low light
-helps you see at night
Retina's Optic Nerve
Nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Visual Information Processing
-begins in the retina
-can visually process things simultaneously
Feature Detectors
neurons in visual cortex
-respond to shape, angle & movement
Parallel Processing
-simultaneous processing of several dimensions through multiple pathways
i.e. color, motion, form, depth
Visual Capture
tendency to allow visual images to dominate our other senses
*vision is our strongest sense
i.e. movie theater, we sense sound is coming from images on screen
Hearing
Hearing is audition**
-transduction of air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain reads as meaningful sound
Audition
sense of hearing
Middle Ear
hammer, anvil, stirrup
Deaf as a Culture
shared beliefs, values, behaviors of deaf or hard-of-hearing ppl who use sign language as primary means of communication marked by use of ASL
Gate-Control Theory (Pain)
spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
-gate "opened" by activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers
-gate "closed" by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain
Sensory Interaction
principle that one say may influence another
i.e. smell of food influences its taste
i.e. looks good so tastes good
Visual Capture
tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
Grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
Gestalt
an organized whole/form
-tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
Proximity
group nearby figures together
similarity
group figures that are similar
continuity
perceive continuous patterns
closure
fill in gaps
connectedness
spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected
Form Perception
Figure and ground grouping
Figure and Ground
organization of visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
-can also be with other senses; i.e. hear one person at a party and ignore surrounding noises
Depth Perception
ability to see objects in 3D
Interposition
closer objects block distant object
linear perspective
parallel lines converge with distance
retinal disparity
images from the two eyes differ
-closer the object, the larger the disparity
convergence
neuromuscular cue
-two eyes move inward near objects
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
-form ideas and opinions about things once given info
ie. after hearing a friend has been prison, she perceives his friendly behavior as insecure and manipulative
Parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena
ESP
Extrasensory Perception
-controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory impact
telepathy
reading someone's mind
clairvoyance
perceiving remote events, like friend's house on fire
precognition
perceiving future events
Psychokinesis
mind over matter
i.e. levitation
Learning
a relatively permanent behavior change due to experience
Associate Learning
learning that certain events occur together
-Classical Conditioning=Pavlov
-Operant Conditioning=Skinner
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
-reflexive or respondent behavior
-automatic response to a stimulus
i.e. blinking
Before Conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (NS) stimulus that doesn't elicit any conditioned or natural response i.e. bell
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) naturally/automatically triggers a response i.e. food
Unconditioned Response (UR) naturally occurring response to a US i.e. salivation

US-->UR
During Conditioning
**Acquisition: the pairing of neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus so that the neural stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
Bell (NS) + Food (US) -->Salivation (UR)

-best conditioning occurs when US is presented immediately after NS
After Conditioning
Bell (CS) --> Salivation (CR)

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after associating with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response

Conditioned Response (CR) the learned response to a previously neutral, but now conditioned, stimulus (CS)
Operant Conditioning
Skinner
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Reinforcement
anything that increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
-better option than punishment
-increase a behavior
Positive Reinforcement
rewards or other positive consequences that follow behaviors
i.e. giving your dog a treat when he follows a command
Negative Reinforcement
removing an aversive stimulus, engaging in behaviors to remove a "negative" stimulus
i.e. fastening your seatbelt to make the annoying fastening seatbelt ding stop
Shaping
using reinforcers to guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
-each step=successive learning
i.e. raising hand quickly
Punishment
can result in fear, aggression, discrimination, etc
-tells you to stop
-decrease a behavior
Watson
**believed that psychology should be an objective science based on observational behaviors
Observational Learning
Bobo doll experiment
Latent Learning
learning that occurs but its not demonstrate until there's a need
-learn by observing
i.e. rats in maze-add food
i.e. college laundry-never done it until there's a need
Social Reinforcement
more likely to like people who like you
i.e. new to campus, and someone compliments you every time you see them
Amount of Reinforcement
-contrast effect (effect of reward is dependent on previous experience with rewards that differed in quality)
-negative (big to small)
-positive (small to big)
Emotion
*emotions are our body's adaptive response
-can change emotion by changing your thinking
-nonverbal language of emotions is universal
Emotions are a mix of...
physiological activation
expressive behaviors
conscious experience
Anger
an emotional state consisting of feelings that varies in intensity from mild irritation or annoyance to intense fury and rage
-what makes someone angry varies
Causes of Anger
if love ones or friends commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable
-foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, aches&pains
i.e. more murders in summer
Happiness
ppl who are happy perceive the world as being safer
-if happy, you are able to make decisions easily, are most cooperative, rate job applications more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives
Subjective Well-Being
the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life
Positive Psychology
focuses on emotional health & happiness, not on pathology (illness)
Stress
any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person's well-being
*stress is a PROCESS by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenged
-when we feel severe stress, our ability to cope is impaired
-stress can be adaptive: in a fearful/stress-causing, we can run away or save our lives
-stress can be maladaptive: chronic stress increases our risk of illness and health problems
Explanatory Style
tend to:
have more control over stressors
cope better with stressful events
have better moods
have a stronger immune system
Social Support
supportive family members, marriage partners & close friends help cope with stress
-their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure
Managing stress effects...
having a sense of control
an optimist explanatory style
social support can reduce stress & improve health
Factors that reduce stress and increase health...
exercise elevates mood and well being
-raise energy, increases self-confidence, and lowers tensions, depression & anxiety

relaxation & meditation

regular religious attendance
-longer life span with a reduced risk of dying
-gives you hope & purpose