Honors US History: Unit 3: Emergence of the Modern United States

Unit 3 Vocab Words from US History
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Lincoln Steffens
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Social Gospel
A moral reform movement of the late nineteenth century led by Protestant clergymen, who drew attention to urban problems and advocated social justice for the poor
settlement house
A house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. HULL HOUSE
direct primary
A preliminary election, run by the state government, in which the voters choose each party's candidates for the general election.
A method of amending state constitutions under which proposed constitutional amendments can be placed on the ballot if enough signatures are obtained on a petition. Almost half the states also employ the initiative on the ballot to allow voters to enact or repeal laws.
A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision
A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired.
Florence Kelley
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours.
temperance movement
A movement that prompted Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, instituting Prohibition, which forbade the sale or transportation of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in 1935.
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Created to reunite the feuding organizations of women's suffrage that split before the Civil War, this organization pulled on nativism and racism to garner popularity. The organization claimed that by giving white, native-born women the right to vote, the nation would be protected from the "ignorant foreign vote," and the South, from a return of Reconstruction. The president was Carrie Chapman Catt.
Alice Paul
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
Nineteenth Ammendment
declared "the right of citizens of the U.S.to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex"
Urban League
Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Anti-Defamation League
group in response to growing anti-semitism-goal to defend Jews and others against physical and verbal attacks, false statements and to secure justice and fair treatment of all citizens.
A mexican american mutual aid group, the members pooled money to buy insurance and pay for legal advice.
Theodore Roosevelt
1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
Square Deal
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Hepburn Act
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
John Muir
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
Gifford Pinchot
One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
Progressive Party
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
New Freedom
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Sixteenth Amendment
1913 amendment that instituted a federal income tax. In debate over this measure in Congress, most felt that this would be a fairer tax than a national sales tax, which was proposed by some.
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal Trade Commission
(1914) Was empowered to investigate and take action against any "unfair trade practice" in every industry except banking and transportation.
Clayton Antitrust Act
Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world.
extractive economy
The economy in a colony where the colonizing country removed raw materials and shipped them back home to benefit its own economy.
Alfred T. Mahan
Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Frederick J. Turner
He wrote an essay on the West called "The Significance of the Frontier on American History," in which he outlined the significance of the frontier on the country as well as the impact of the close of the frontier. This volume included Turner's 'Safety Valve' theory.
Matthew Perry
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Queen Liliuokalani
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Jose Marti
a Cuban poet and journalist in exile in New York who launched a revolution in 1895. He organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property. He counted on provoking U.S. intervention to help the rebels achieve a free Cuba.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
Yellow Press
made people more interested in the war by publishing sometimes untrue articles that inflamed opinion and anger
extreme and emotional nationalism, or chauvinism, often characterized by an aggressive foreign policy, accompanied by an eagerness to wage war. Iran and Israel's extreme jingoism creates fear for its inhabitants.
George Dewey
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo was a Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and then against the United States. He was a leader in the fight for Filipino independence.
Rough Riders
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
Treaty of Paris
1763 Ended the French and Indian War. Marked the end of French power in N. America. England got Canada and all French land east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. Spain (aided French) gave Florida to England and in return received all French land west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans.
An act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.
guerilla warfare
Hit and run tactics in war taught to the militia by the Native Americans. Pontiac during the French and Indian Wars great strategist of this style.
William Howard Taft
(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson
sphere of influence
A geographical area where one country, state, empire, etc. is very dominant and controlling. Controlling group often brings their own customs, political ideas, and so on.
john hay
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Russo-Japanese War
"The first great war of the 20th century," it grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
"Gentlemen's Agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japanese men already living in the US to join them
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Foraker Act
This act established Puerto Rico as an unorganized U.S. territory. Puerto Ricans were not given U.S. citizenship, but the U.S. president appointed the island's governor and governing council.
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
"big stick" diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
"dollar diplomacy"
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
"moral diplomacy"
foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
Alsace- Lorraine
Territory taken by Germany from France as a rest of the Franco Prussian war. Was later returned to France as a result of German defeat in WWI
A political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
Francis Ferdinand
(1863-1914) Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I.
William 2
in 1890 he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign.
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other., In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
(92): One that is harmed or eliminated as a result of an action or a circumstance: The corner grocery was a casualty of the expanding supermarkets.
(n.) illegal traffic, smuggled goods; (adj.) illegal, prohibited
German Submarine in WWI and WWII, German submarines used in World War I
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Zimmermann Note
A secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Bernard Baruch
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
(consumer price index) a measure of the overall cost of the goods and services bought by a typical consumer
George Creel
A journalist who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.
conscientious objective
a personal appeal that to carry out a particular action that has been ordered by legitimate authority would be against one's own conscience
Espionage Act
1917 This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Great Migration
(1630-1642) Migration of 70,000 refugees from England to the North American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20,000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose--to establish a model Christian settlement in the New World.
A protecting force accompanying property in course of transportation.
Vladimir Lenin
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
John J. Pershing
an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
Fourteen Points
A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected populations, and the founding of an association of nations to preserve the peace and guarantee their territorial integrity. It was rejected by Germany, but it made Wilson the moral leader of the Allies in the last year of World War I.
The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Abrupt onset of fever, chills, severe malaise, cough, coryza, myalgias. Transmitted via aerosol droplets.
A measure of the decrease in the value of money, expressed as the percentage reduction in value since the previous year.
Red Scare
(HT) , Most intense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due process, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Nicola Sacco
1920- 2 Italian immigrants believed to be anarchists were accused of murder in MA - found guilty, though evidence against them was disputable - executed in 1927- though many believed they were convicted just b/c of pol. Beliefs
Bartolomeo Vanzetti
United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Nicola Sacco was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1888-1927)
Warren G. Harding
(1921-1923), laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
creditor nations
a nation that lends more money than it borrows. The US became the worlds largest creditor nation following WWI.