Biology Final Review
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Terms in this set (227)
A chemical signal that is secreted into body fluids, mostly blood, and communicates regulatory messages inside the body
Cells that can respond to the hormone signal
Secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to be carried throughout the body
Receives sensory information from nerves in the entire body and then initiates endocrine response to Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland Anterior
Releases MANY hormones that do MANY different things throughout the body
Pituitary Gland Posterior
Releases Oxytocin and ADH (Uterus, water in Kidneys)
A control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
Feedback that maintains a variable in a narrow range at homeostasis
Closed Circulatory system in humans: Heart Pumps blood to lungs and to capillaries of organs and limbs
An endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two lobes that influence metabolic rate and growth
Too many Thyroid Hormones are released
Too few Thyroid Hormones are released
Has nervous tissue connections to the eyes and releases Melatonin to regulate biological rhythms
Secreted at night to induce sleep
The gland located at the top of the kidneys
The inside of the gland at the top of the kidneys that responds to short term stress
gives the body an energy boost by mobilizing energy stores (hormone)
The outside of the gland at the top of the kidneys that responds to long term stress
Cause the body to increase production of glucose by breaking down muscle tissue, and direct kidneys to retain more salt to increase blood pressure.
Organ system that functions to ingest, digest, absorb and eliminate for an organism to take in and use nutrients.
Gland that performs both endocrine and exocrine functions for digestion and blood glucose regulation
Secreted by Pancreas beta cells, causes body cells to take in glucose from blood and liver cells to store excess glucose as glycogen
Secreted by pancreas alpha cells, causes liver cells to break down glycogen into glucose and raise blood glucose back into homeostasis
Male reproductive glands that mainly synthesize androgens, secreted as Testosterone
one of the hormones secreted by gonad glands, contributes to fetal development and puberty of male, aka testosterone
Female reproductive glands that mainly synthesize Estrogen (Estradiol) and Progestins (Progesterone)
synthesized by ovaries, plays important role in development of female, aka estrogens- secondary characteristics
a hormone involved in maintaining the uterus
the time when the endometrium thickens with a rich blood supply, the egg is released, and prepares the uterus for possible implantation of an embryo. This usually lasts 28 days in humans (though it can be between 20-40 days)
function by filtering blood through the nephrons and extracting extra sugar, vitamins, proteins, and other waste
control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments
the disposal of nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism
a chemical that disrupts the normal function of the endocrine system
cells in the nervous system
little hair things on the neuron
the tail thing of the neuron
The ends of the axons
chemical released at the terminal which travels into the next neuron cell
peripheral nervous system
neuron cells that are not in the brain or spinal chord
A neuron that senses information
A neuron that connects the other 2 types of neurons; the majority of neurons
A neuron that connects to muscles
neurons that control stressful related aspects of the body
Controls the normal functions of the body
An involuntary response
A voluntary response
outer layer of gray matter surrounding the cerebum
The lobe responsible for reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. Carries out body movements. Plans for future.
The lobe that processes tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain
The lobe that is involved in the senses of hearing and smell.
The lobe that receives and interprets visual sensory messages.
The part of the brain that controls basic vital body functions. Includes Mid Brain, Pons, Medulla.
The part of the brain that responds to emotion and involved in memory storage. Includes Thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
The part of the brain that coordinates body movements
A bundle of axons which connects the two hemispheres of the brain
A geologist who developed the idea of deep time in which Earth's history is ancient
Popularized the principle of uniformitarianism which argues that geological processes shaping the Earth today existed in Earth's ancient history
proposed a hypothesis of evolution in which an existing organism undergoes change during its lifetime based on the use or disuse of body parts which could then be passed to their progeny
An economist who wrote on population problems in England; argued that human population growth would lead to food scarcity and overcrowding
Agricultural practice that uses natural variation and human selection of desirable traits
A heritable character trait that increases an organism's fitness
Organisms best suited to their environment will survive and leave offspring also suited to the environment
Evolution of organisms adapted to similar environments produces similar adaptations even though the organisms are only distantly related (share no recent common ancestor)
Evolution of organisms that are closely related (share a recent common ancestor) but have adapted to different environments
A single ancestral species diverges into several different forms adapted to slightly different environments
Structures similar in form but not necessarily function that were inherited from a common ancestor
Structures similar in function but were not inherited from a common ancestor
Structures inherited from a common ancestor but reduced in size and function due to changes in selection pressures
All of the alleles of all genes in a specific population
The number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool
Allele frequencies in a population should not change unless being acted upon by an evolutionary force
Random change in allele frequency
Individuals choose mates based on specific features
Causes the introduction of new alleles into the population
Genes move as individuals immigrate or emigrate
Some traits confer a selective advantage allowing an organism to be more likely to survive and reproduce; this eventually can produce adaptations
A change in allele frequency due to a reduction in population size, often following a catastrophic event or environmental change
The Founder Effect
A change in allele frequency due to the creation of a new population by a few individuals that are not genetically representative of the original population
Organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Evolution of new species
Individuals toward one extreme are more likely to survive and reproduce
Individuals toward the center are more likely to survive and reproduce
Individuals toward both extremes are more likely to survive and reproduce
Large-scale transformation in a taxonomic group including the evolution of new species
Many species become extinct in a short time period
Slow and steady evolutionary pace
Evolutionary pace with periods of equilibrium (no change) disrupted by periods or rapid change
Two species evolve in response to one another
Groups of organisms with a common ancestor and all of its descendants.
Branching diagrams used to depict evolutionary relationships.
A trait that is new in the most recent common ancestor to a group and was then passed on to the descendants of the group
The science of naming and classifying organisms
A two-name system for identifying organisms
The most inclusive unit of classification (besides life)
Domain that contains one prokaryotic kingdom—Eubacteria
Domain that contains one prokaryotic kingdom—Archaebacteria
Domain that contains four eukaryotic kingdoms— "Protista", Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
The slow motion of the Earth's plates leading to the movement of the continents
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendants of small, symbiotic bacteria living inside large cells
A nonliving particle composed of nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coat that sometimes are also made of lipids
The protein coat around a virus
A lipid coat that surrounds the capsid, found only in some viruses
An infection in which a virus enters a cell, copies itself, and causes lysis of the cell
An infection in which a virus inserts viral DNA into the host cell's DNA where it is replicated until the prophage is triggered into activity
Animals that do not have a backbone Accounts for ~95% of animal species
Animals with a backbone that belong to the phylum chordate
Four legged vertebrates that colonized the land
The process in which 4 daughter haploid cells are created
Strands of DNA and protein inside the cell nucleus
the pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism
A cell that contains pairs of chromosomes, 1 from a male and from a female
Contains mixed DNA in chromosomes from parents. Have only 1 chromatid, no full chromosome
A sexual reproduction cell. Sperm and egg are examples
The product of a gamete from each parent. The fertilized egg.
The process of the male and female Gametes joining to create a new cell
Factors that are passed from Parent to Offspring
Different forms of Genes
The type of allele that takes precedence
The type of allele that doesn't take precedence
Having 2 dominant or 2 recessive alleles of one gene
Having 1 dominant and 1 recessive alleles of one gene
The genes of an organism
The physical appearance of an organism
Different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes
When a heterozygous individual will have a BLEND of both traits
When a heterozygous individual will show signs of both traits (the phenotypes of both are clearly expressed)
When more than 2 alleles control a trait (think obvious) (ex. blood)
When multiple genes control a trait, creating a continuum of that trait in individuals
mRNA (messenger RNA)
RNA that contains the codons and therefore, the instructions, for how to make specific proteins
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
RNA that is part of (the bulk of, really) ribosomes
RNA that looks at the code on RNA and makes it into polypeptide chains
The process of transferring the information from DNA to RNA
Forms RNA from the DNA that it is attached to
Pieces of RNA that do
actually code for amino acids (plural)
Pieces of RNA that
code for amino acids (plural)
A sequence of 3 nitrogenous bases in RNA that codes for one amino acid
the process of copying information from RNA to polypeptide chains
The nitrogenous bases at the end of the tRNA
the complete set of diploid chromosomes grouped in pairs, and arranged in order of decreasing size
2 of the 46 chromosomes that determines an individual's sex
44 chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
an inactive X chromosome inside a female somatic cell
Trait in which homozygous dominant individuals do not exist in the population
heritable changes in genetic information
produce change in a single gene
Produce changes in an entire chromosome
Changes to a single or a few bases
1 Base is changed to a different base
Changes to introns or to the bases that makes them code for the same amino acid
base is added to DNA sequence
base is taken away from DNA sequence
DNA is taken out of a chromosome
A part of a chromosome is unintentionally replicated
A part of a chromosome is reversed in its direction
A part of a chromosome is moved to another part of that chromosome
Chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
A non-mutated type of a gene
Where are electric signals sent from in a neuron?
a system of communication that combines sounds, symbols, and gestures according to rules about sequence and meaning
Speech production begins to take shape in this area
Brain matches raw sounds with linguistic meaning to form a basic sentence in this area
What gland is connected to the pituitary gland?
What types of glands secrete androgens, estrogens, and progestins?
What is the wall of the uterus called?
What type of feedback cycle is osmoregulation?
What part of a neuron receives signals from other cells?
What is the space between the terminal and the dendrite called?
What takes longer, a reflex or a reaction?
What does natural selection produce changes in?
Who liked Giraffes?
What type of biogeographical evidence are Darwin's finches an example of?
Tetrapod limbs are an example of what types of structures?
Wings are an example of what type of structure?
What is this an example of?
What is pesticide resistance an example of?
What is bacterial conjugation a type of?
What is a mutation a type of?
What type of trait is this selection on?
frequency of homozygous dominant traits
The Hardy Weinberg equation is p^2+2pq+q^2. What does the p^2 term represent?
frequency of heterozygous traits
The Hardy Weinberg equation is p^2+2pq+q^2. What does the 2pq term represent?
What is happening if genetic drift is occurring
at least 1
How many evolutionary forces are in effect if the Hardy Weinberg principle is in effect
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What are the 8 levels of classification from highest to lowest?
genetic isolation (no interbreeding)
What has to occur for the evolution of new species?
What is this called? (specific)
What is speciation occurring in the same geographic area called?
What can best be described as an inability to fully recall places
What brain lobe is in green?
True or false, the yellow lobe is responsible for processing visual signals
True or false, the red lobe is responsible for processing visual signals
What is the large part of the brain that is responsible for voluntary actions?
What part of the brain is only present in mammals?
What part of the brain responds to emotion and is resonsible for memory storage?
What is the clump at the back of the brain, and is it responsible for coordinating body movements?
What part of the brain (that starts with an A) responds to emotions?
If Sam has N=1800, what is his haploid number?
If Sam has N=2, what is his diploid number?
At what stage of meiosis does crossing over occur?
Before ______, chromosomes are replicated, producing sister chromatids
What action happens in Meosis to increase genetic diversity?
This isn't a question, but practice Chi squared tests (the answer is 1)
If Hh is crossed with Hh, where H represents horse and h represents ham, where the traits are incomplete dominant, what percentage of the offspring will show a mix (horseham)?
LH, FSH, estrogen
What hormones are responsible for ovulation?
It would double
What would happen to the N number every generation if there was no meosis?
I have speckled feathers, what phenotype pattern do I have?
non-mendelian (inherited down through female)
What type of inheritance pattern is in mitochondrial DNA?
frequency of crossing over
What can be used to determine the relative distance of genes on the same chromosome? (4 words)
What type of inheritance pattern is this?
Polymerase chain reaction
A technique that amplifies (makes many copies) of a specific segment of DNA
Highly specific substances that cut DNA molecule into precise pieces
What type of inheritance pattern is this? (assume half and half = white)
What can best be described as the independent separation of different traits? Independent assortment or segregation
What can best be described as the independent separation of different alleles? Independent assortment or segregation
What is the 3 prime end of mRNA called?
3 to 5
What direction does RNA polymerase read DNA?
What can be best described as an extra set of one chromosome in the body?
What happens when an organism has an extra set of all chromosomes
New allele combinations
what is the source of heritable variation? New allele combinations, changes in environmental conditions, competition, changes in reproductive rates
Allele frequency changes, crossing over, mutations
What are the 3 main sources of genetic variation?
absolute and relative
What are the two types of dating? (broad terms)
Have lipids been discovered that can form spontaneously into membranes?
Struggle for existence
Fill in the blank: Organisms produce more offspring than can survive, creating a _______ _________ _________
What is sexual reproduction a type of?
What helped the addition of oxygen in the atmosphere (geologic force)?
What is it called when bacterial DNA inserts itself into the host chromosomes?
genetic drift, nonrandom mating, mutation, gene flow, natural selection
What are the five forces of evolution? (in order from the powerpoint)
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