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Utah History Unit 3 & 4 Test Study Set

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Why did Mormons settle Utah?
They were persecuted in the east and were escaping the United States.
What is the correct order of states that mormons moved to?
New York, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, & Utah.
Why did mormons keep moving across the country?
They were being persecuted and they wanted to escape the U.S. and practice religion on their own.
What country owned Utah before it was part of the U.S.?
Mexico.
Who wrote the Extermination Order?
Governor Boggs.
What was the Extermination Order?
A law that forced Mormons to move from Missouri or be killed.
What was the Mormon Battalion?
A group of Mormon soldiers who agreed to fight with the U.S. in the war against Mexico.
What problems did the Mormons face on the trail?
Cold weather, crossing rivers, rugged mountains, disease, indians.
What was the perpetual Emigration fund?
A fund where people would pay money to help immigrants come to Utah. Once the immigrants got to Utah they would repay the money they used.
What is the difference between an Emigrant and an Immigrant?
Emigrant-> A person leaving a place.
Immigrant-> A person coming to a place.
What were the Martin and Willie Handcart companies?
Two Mormon companies that were the worst disasters on the trek west history. They left late and got stuck in bad snow in Wyoming.
What was the Hastings Cutoff?
A "shortcut" of Lansford W. Hastings through Utah that wasn't really any faster.
Who were the Donner Party?
Non-Mormon pioneer companies that tried to come through Utah. They were slowed down by the Hastings Cutoff and got snowed in in California's mountains. Many resorted to cannibalism to survive.
What did Pioneers do for fun?
Hiked, sang, danced, and had parties.
What did Pioneers burn for firewood on the trail?
Buffalo Chips. (poop ew!!!)
What were common features of Mormon settlements?
Streets in a grid, irrigation ditches along streets, large city blocks for homes and gardens, public buildings and parks in the center of town (AKA town squares), farmlands beyond the public square with trees to block wind.
What job did most Pioneers have when they first got to Utah?
FARMING.
What holiday did the Mormons first celebrate when they first got to Utah?
Pioneer Day.
What did Brigham Young say when he got to the Salt Lake Valley?
This is the place.
Why did Mormons have trouble settling the land?
Unfamiliar environment with dry, fertile land; cold, snowy winter and hot summer; isolated with no fast communications; native americans saw them as intruders, every year new immigrants came; grasshoppers, crickets, and locusts eating crops, severe hot and cold weather made it hard to grow enough food to feed everyone; when non-mormons came there were conflicts.
What major event caused many Americans to travel through Utah on their way west?
The California Gold Rush.
What was the exact day Mormon pioneers entered the valley?
July 24, 1847.
Which war was a "Cold War" - or in other words, not a single shot was fired?
Utah War
What conflict involved the Fanchers receiving a hostile reception from the typically friendly Mormons on their way to California?
Mountain Meadows Massacre
Which conflict involved small groups of Shoshone attacking wagon trains, so US soldiers, led by Patric Connor, attacked and massacred men, women, and children?
Bear River Massacre (To remember this, remember the Shoshone lived up in the north by the Bear Lake/River!)
What was the longest and most destructive conflict in Utah?
The Black Hawk War
What was the last Indian War in Utah?
The Posey War
What was the Bear River Massacre caused by and what was the result of the Massacre?
Caused by settlers shooting peaceful Shoshone Indians. The Indians fought back and so the army came and ended up slaughtering most of the Shoshone.
Why did the Walker War end?
Brigham Young gave Chief Walkara's daughter a priesthood blessing and she was healed from her sickness.
What was Utah's Trail of Tears?
The Blackhawk War - The longest, most destructive conflict in Utah history.
Did most Native Americans and settlers live peacefully?
Yes.
What was the longest and most destructive conflict in Utah?
Blackhawk War.
How many people died in the Utah War?
None, it was a cold war.
Who was killed in the Mountain Meadows Massacre and by whom?
Fancher party was killed by Mormon settlers and some Indians.
What are two good things about Johnston's Army was coming to Utah?
Good: Brought jobs and money to Utah.
Bad: Had to have a gun or you didn't feel safe, brought the "wild west" to Utah.
What did Mormons think was happening when Johnston's Army was coming to Utah?
That there was a war and they'd be persecute and pushed out like before in Illinois.
Describe what happened at the Mountain Meadows Massacre?
Fancher Party (group of people from Arkansas) was moving through Utah to California during the Utah War. They bragged about a Mormon religious leader killed in their home state. Mormons, against the advice of the LDS church in Salt Lake City, surrounded and killed all in the party but the smallest children.
Why did people of other religions (not LDS) come to Utah?
To start missionary schools and to begin mining.
What are some reasons why mining was dangerous?
a. Gas poisoning.
b. People could fall.
c. Getting hit by rocks.
d. Getting ran over by a mining cart.
e. Tunnels could collapse or explode.
f. Lung disease form dust in the air.
What types of towns would miners live in? (Why didn't they live in SLC?)
They lived in mining towns to be closer to where they worked.
How can you tell the difference between a Mining and a Mormon town?
Mining towns have curved roads, general stores, and shacks. Mormon towns have grid, churches, farm lands, and a central square.
What was the Pony Express?
A way to send letters across the country in 10 days.
What type of people would have been hired as Pony Express riders?
Young, skinny orphans.
How long did it take Pony Express riders to transport mail?
10 days.
Why did the Pony Express stop operating?
The telegraph replaced it.
What was the first newspaper in Utah?
Deseret News.
What viewpoints did the first newspaper in Utah have (who started it?)
Mormons started it.
What was the second newspaper in Utah?
Salt Lake Tribune.
What viewpoints did the second newspaper in Utah have? (who started it?)
Non-mormons.
Who started the first schools in Utah, and were they well attended?
Mormons, not really. They cost money and farmers didn't want to pay.
What types of schools were started second in Utah, and why did people start those schools?
Missionary schools. Were started by non-mormons to show mormon children the "error" of their religion.
Where did the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads meet?
Promontory Point.
Why were the railroads good for Utah? How were they bad for Utah?
a. Made mining more profitable, helped people move here easier, people came to build railroads (Chinese and Irish)
b. Bad because Butch Cassidy would rob the trains, Native Americans lost land, and Utah had competition from other states.
What invention in the 1800s changed the way people would have traveled to Utah?
Railroad (steam locomotive).
Who became a famous train robber after the Transcontinental Railroad was started?
Butch Cassidy.
Who was the first Territorial Governor of Utah?
Brigham Young.
Who was the second Territorial Governor of Utah?
Alfred Cumming.
What was unique about the way Utah set up its Territorial Government?
It was the same leadership as the LDS church.
What were the major businesses in Territorial Utah?
Banking, Farming, and Mining.