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Modern US History Final Review
Terms in this set (98)
the practice of businesses providing welfare services to their employees. Welfare capitalism in this second sense, or industrial paternalism, was centered on industries that employed skilled labor and peaked in the mid-20th century.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
absence of government and absolute freedom of the individual, regarded as a political ideal.
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
a member of the majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, which was renamed the Communist Party after seizing power in the October Revolution of 1917.
management of a business, industry, or economy, according to principles of efficiency derived from experiments in methods of work and production, especially from time-and-motion studies.
a series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.
Advertising in the Jazz Age
increased greatly due to the excess money made by the average person in an attempt to encourage them to purchase more of the items that could be manufactured cheaply and quickly.
(in the 1920s) a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior.
a society in which the buying and selling of goods and services is the most important social and economic activity.
also called a blind pig or blind tiger, is an illicit establishment that sells alcoholic beverages. Such establishments came into prominence in the United States during the Prohibition era.
the illegal business of transporting alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law. Smuggling is usually done to circumvent taxation or prohibition laws within a particular jurisdiction.
an intellectual, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.
a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
a benefit in the form of an option given by a company to an employee to buy stock in the company at a discount or at a stated fixed price.
Securities and Exchange Commission
a government agency responsible for enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations, including the electronic securities markets in the United States.
Public Works Administration
part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression.
Tennessee Valley Authority
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
National Recovery Administration
a prime New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor, and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.
A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work. Migrant workers usually do not have an intention to stay permanently in the country or region in which they work.
a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Social Security Act
established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped.
Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand
a form of radical authoritarian nationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe
America First Committee
the foremost United States non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II.
the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. They formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Capitol of North Korea
Capitol of South Korea
the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall. This was the main policy of the United States during the Cold War as they feared the spread of Communism.
the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
the intermixing of people or groups previously segregated.
the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King Jr., had a large role in the American civil rights movement.
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930
a political organization founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to challenge police brutality against the African American community.
a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group
an American feminist organization founded in 1966. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and in Washington, D.C. The organization is left-leaning.
an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.
a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline or a similar fuel. It was initially used as an incendiary device against buildings and later primarily as an anti-personnel weapon, as it sticks to skin and causes severe burns when on fire.
a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program
a difference of opinions between one generation and another regarding beliefs, politics, or values.
A term used by President Richard Nixon to indicate his belief that the great body of Americans supported his policies and that those who demonstrated against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War amounted to only a noisy minority.
a way of life and set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm.
Nickname given to those who wished to continue to fight the war in Vietnam and supported its mission.
Nickname given to those who opposed the Vietnam war and wished for it to end.
the postponement of a person's conscription into the military. Often given for college students, or those with injuries or medical limitations.
Warren G. Harding
an Ohio Republican, was the 29th President of the United States (1921-1923). Though his term in office was fraught with scandal, including Teapot Dome, Harding embraced technology and was sensitive to the plights of minorities and women.
a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal.
an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF). He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943 - constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped the pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship.
a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator, Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust.
was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As Prime Minister, he led Britain to victory in the Second World War.
Navajo Code Talkers
speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater.
an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott
an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe.
an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. He was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice
John F. Kennedy
was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November
an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. He is also known for his support of using Civil Disobedience to achieve his political goals.
Lee Harvey Oswald
an American Marxist and ex-Marine who assassinated United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963
Lyndon B. Johnson
an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Sandra Day O'Conner
a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan to 2006. She is the first woman to serve on the Court.
Ho Chi Minh
a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so
an American politician and lawyer who served as a United States Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
creates a number of rights relevant to both criminal and civil legal proceedings. In criminal cases, the Fifth Amendment guarantees the right to a grand jury, forbids "double jeopardy," and protects against self-incrimination. It also requires that "due process of law" be part of any proceeding that denies a citizen "life, liberty or property" and requires the government to compensate citizens when it takes private property for public use.
established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states
established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol illegal
prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no president-elect.
repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 16, 1919. The Twenty-first Amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933. It is unique among the 27 amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment and to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions.
provided for military aid to any country whose defense was vital to the security of the United States. The plan thus gave Roosevelt the power to lend arms to Britain with the understanding that, after the war, America would be paid back in kind.
an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families
a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin
Plessy v Ferguson
a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court issued in 1896. It upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities as long as the segregated facilities were equal in quality - a doctrine that came to be known as "separate but equal"
Brown v. Board of Education
a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
a volunteer program run by the United States government. The stated mission includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries.
a conference among several nations that took place from April 26 - July 20, 1954. It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War.
Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939. The pact delineated the spheres of interest between the two powers, confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty amended after the joint invasion of Poland. It remained in force for nearly two years, until the German government of Adolf Hitler ended the pact by launching an attack on the Soviet positions in Eastern Poland during Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.
Invasion of Poland
was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. The trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, where it was held.
Sinking of the Lusitania
The sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States because 128 American citizens were among the dead. The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany, and was a factor in the United States' declaration of war nearly two years later.
Bay of Pigs
was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). A counter-revolutionary military group,, trained and funded by the CIA intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. The invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.
was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
1968 Democratic Convention Protests
Protesters convened on the convention and were dispersed by National Guardsmen using violent means.
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