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Problem-Solving and Decision-Making
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Terms in this set (29)
Normative
choices a rational person makes under ideal circumstances
Descriptive
choices a typical person makes under typical circumstances
Problem space
contains the initial (current) state of the problem, the goal state, and all possible states in between, as well as the operations required to move from one state to another
trial and error
usually the worst
Forward chaining
evaluates all possible actions and selects the best option to achieve a goal
Backward chaining
starts with the goal and works backwards to the initial state
Means-end analysis
in which you identify the difference between the current state and the goal state and try to reduce it
Analogies
Make a comparison between the current problem and a similar, familiar problem
Logic and Reasoning
The process of drawing conclusions
Deduction
a conclusion follows necessarily from assumptions about the problem'
- Formal logic involves arguments in the form of a list of premises and a conclusion
Deduction *
depends on formal rules of logic
Formal logic
involves arguments in the form of a list of premises and a conclusion
Induction
a conclusion is drawn from particular conditions or facts relevant to a problem
syllogism
or argument where a conclusion follows a set of premises
-Can be valid or invalid (true or false)
Conditional
conditional statements are used to determine a conclusion
Categorical reasoning
statements that include quantifiers such as "some" or "all"
is influenced by the context, interpretation of the premises, and confirmation bias
Induction
-Conclusions are not necessarily true if the premises are true
-Accomplished by drawing a general conclusion from particular conditions
-Involves categorization, reasoning about rules and events, and problem solving
conjunction error
arises from the representativeness heuristic, Objects are placed in categories based on how typical they seem to be of the category
ex) Suzan is a middle-aged Japanese woman teaching at a university in the United States
utility
is how much a choices outcomes are worth to the decision maker
the expected-utility theory
Gambling preference is determined by the outcomes, their probability of happening, risk aversion, and individual differences
bounded rationality
which describes the notion that a decision maker bases his or her decisions on a simplified model of the world
-Recognizes the limitations of human information processing
-It is impossible to consider every possible situation
Heuristics
mental shortcuts, to narrow down the potential actions and increase the probability of finding a correct solution
-They can be useful and help us operate on a day-to-day basis because they help bypass our cognitive and attentional limitations, but they can also lead to biases
Satisficing heuristic
involves searching through possible alternatives until you reach a threshold of acceptability, whereupon you choose that alternative
-1) Decide what you need and 2) pick the first acceptable solution (not necessarily the best)
Example: grocery shopping
Elimination-by-aspects heuristic
in which people only focus on features that are the most personally important
-The more stress a person experiences, the more likely they are to narrow down features
ex) eliminate all cars worth more than $15,000
The Availability heuristic
involves the ease with which events can be retrieved from memory
-Events that are easier to remember are judged as more likely than events that are harder to remember
-Causes people to overestimate certain probabilities
The representativeness heuristic
is based on the degree of to which an event is similar to its parent population, and to which it reflects the salient features
-More representative outcomes are judged more likely to occur
Means-end analysis
in which you identify the difference between the current state and the goal state and try to reduce it
Normative reasoning
what people should do to make the best decision possible
Descriptive Reasoning
how people really make decisions, including how people overcome cognitive limitations and how they are biased by decision-making contexts
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Verified questions
ADVANCED MATH
Find the simple interest earned after 1 year on each investment. a) $2000 invested at 4%/year b)$1200 invested at 2.9%/year c) $1500 invested at 3.1%/year d)$12 500 invested at 4.5%/year
ADVANCED MATH
Given integers $a$ and $b>0,$ show that there exists a unique integer $r$ with $0 \leq r<b$ satisfying $a=[a / b] b+r .$
ADVANCED MATH
Prove that the congruences "math]x \equiv a(\bmod n) [/math] and $\quad x \equiv b(\bmod m)$ admit a simultaneous solution if and only if $\operatorname{gcd}(n, m) | a-b ;$ if a solution exists, confirm that it is unique modulo $\operatorname{lcm}(n, m) .$
ADVANCED MATH
Show that the dictionary order topology on the set $\mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}$ is the same as the product topology $\mathbb{R}_{d} \times \mathbb{R}$, where $\mathbb{R}_{d}$ denote $\mathbb{R}$ in the discrete topology. Compare this topology with the standard topology on $\mathbb{R}^{2}$.