Cold War Test

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J(ohn F.) Kennedy
-Wanted to get rid of Fidel Castro with the Bay of Pigs invasion
-President during the Cuban Missile Crisis
R(obert) Kennedy
Attorney General during Cuban Missile crisis
(Joseph) McCarthy
-Started the hunt for in the US for communism
-Part of what led to the Cold War
(Leonid) Brezhnev
-Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964-1982
-Created a doctrine
(Vladimir) Putin
-Prime minister in 1999
-Ruled Russia from 2000-2024
F(idel) Castro
-Helped lead the Revolution of Cuban government and turned Cuba into a communist nation
(Nikita) Khrushcev
-Served as premier of Soviet Union from 1958-1964
(Lea) Walesa
-Created a noncommunist union called Solidarity in Poland
R(aul) Castro
-The communist leader of Cuba that took over for his brother in 2008
-Kept tight political control
(Mikhail) Gorbachev
-Leader of Communist Soviet Union from 1985-1991
-Brought back Stalinist policies
-Perestroika, Glasnot, and Disarmament
(Boris) Yeltsin
-First Russian President from 1991-1999
(Imre) Nagy
-Leader of revolts in Hungary
-Eased censorship, ended one-party rule, ejected Soviet troops, and withdrew from Warsaw Pact
(Alexander) Dubcek
-In 1968 gained leadership in Czechoslovakia giving better freedoms
-Led the revolution with Vaclav Havel
"De Stalinization" Policy
Went against all of Stalin's reforms
Reasons for Cold War
-Berlin Airlift
-Cuban Missile Crisis
-Korean War
-Vietnam War
-Bay of Pigs
-Cambodia
-McCarthyism
Reasons for the building of the Berlin Wall
-The East was controlled by the Soviet Union (communist) and the West was democratic
-Many people from the East were trying to leave for the West
-The wall went up to prevent people from leaving
Why and how did the Cold War end
-Gorbachev brought revolution to Russia with perestroika and glasnost
-The Berlin wall was destroyed by Gorbachev
-Brought about revolutions to free many countries of Communist rule
Economy of East Germany
-Communist
-Command economy
-stagnant economy
-limited rights and freedom
Economy of West Germany
-Democratic
-Industrial economy
-capitalist
-High standard of living
Challenges to the reunification of Germany
-West Germany paid higher taxes to to help rebuild the East
-East Germany had a difficult time with market economy
-Unemployment rose
Problems of communism in USSR
-Failed to keep up with consumer needs and Western technology
-Workers had little incentive to work hard or show up
-Workers had money but no selection of goods
-Black market begin to emerge
Benefits of communism in USSR
-Many people were employed
-Everybody was educated
Yeltsin's policies in Russia during 1990s
-Privatized more state-run industries and collective farms
-Unemployment soared
-Little aid from the West]
-Criminal activity rose
-WROTE A NEW CONSTITUTION
Afgan War--effect on USSR
-Afghan communist party took power-provided money and weapons by the USSR
-20,000 Soviets lost their lives
Afgan War--relations with US
-Rebels relied on the Pakistan and US for assistance
-President Reagen armed the Mujahedin w/ ground-to-air missiles
Poland's path to independence
-General strikes and riots...all squashed in 1956
Ethnic groups of Yugoslavia and problems created after the fall of Communism
-Josip Tito set up a communist government in this nation
-Ethnic conflict tore apart Balkan Region of this nation
-Serbs in Bosnia started ethnic cleansing and forcibly removed other groups
US foreign policy in dealing with the Cold War
-Containment policy
Problems in Russian economy after the fall of communism in 1990s
-Factories closed
-Unemployment soared
-New Freedom upset Old-Communists
-New Russian federation was set up
Nations that make up the former Yugoslavia
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
-Pledged to limit the number of nuclear weapons held by each side
START
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
-Led to large number of weapons decreased
INF
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
-Between the United States and Soviet Union which eliminated their Immediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles
NPT
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
-Agreed not to develop nuclear weapons and to cooperate with peaceful use of nuclear energy
Gorbachev's resignation--when and why?
-Placed under house arrest in 1991
-Resigned as General Secretary in December 1991
First elected Russian president
Boris Yeltsin
Communism in the world today?
-North Korea
-China
-Cuba
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance between East European nations and USSR for protection against foreign aggression
Marshall Plan
Official Europe Recovery Program (1947) monetary aid from US to European nations to combat Soviet communism
Truman Doctrine
The document that set out to contain communism by helping Greece and Turkey to defend against Soviet control
Dissidents in the Soviet Union (Sakharov) Who were they? Why jailed?
-Spoke out against human rights abuse
-Exiled to remote Soviet city
Dissidents in the Soviet Union (Solzhenitsyn) Who were they? Why jailed?
-Wrote a letter to a friend criticizing Stalin
-Sent to a prison camp
-His writings were banned in the Soviet Union
Events in Eastern Europe and USSR leading to the downfall of communism
-New communication broke Stalinist isolation policy
-Military and Wartime expenditures burdened economy
-Soviet Union declined
Reason for Berlin Airlift. Outcomes of it
-Stalin wanted to overcome all of Berlin
-Truman refused to give in and flew supplies into the blockaded city
UN and NATO- What were these organizations?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949
-Intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states
Uprisings in Poland
-Protest began in 1980
-Led by Lech Walesa for noncommunist
Uprisings in Hungary
-Established elections and multi-party system
-Opened up private enterprise
-Led by Imre Nagy
Uprisings in Czechoslovakia
-Vackav and Dubcek led the protest
-1994 "Velvet Divorce" (peaceful)
MAD
Mutually Assured Destruction
Bay of Pigs. What happened?
-Cuban exiles vs. Cuban military
-Attempt by the US government to overthrow communist government, led by Fidel Castro
-Unsuccessful
Cuban Missile Crisis. What happened?
-US vs. Cuba
-Soviet Union placed their missile in Cuba pointed at the US
-Us placed missiles pointed at Soviet Union from Turkey
Development of Western Allies post WW2
US, Britain, France, Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, New Zealand, Philippines
European Coal and Steel Co->European Community->European Union
-Created in 1960s to break down trade tar-riffs with 6 countries
-Those 6 expanded to 10 in European community
-Precursor to the European Union
Mujahedin--Who? Significance?
-Muslim religious workers
-Part of the Afghanistan war
-Afghan and Islamic rebels against Commi's (these people)
Freedom of states following Soviet collapse
-Eastern European States
-States that came out of the USSR (-stan countries)
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