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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 10 Section 3 and 4
Terms in this set (67)
form of government in which a few people have the ruling power
a set of principles and rules for governing
favoring the equality of all people
warships that had three levels of rowers on each side
What is the name of the Greek city-state on the coast of the Aegean Sea?
Who ruled Athens?
at first kings ruled Athens and then Athenian nobles, merchants and manufacturers took over the government and setup an oligarchy
Who fought against the Athenian nobles about the oligarchy?
Farmers and artisans; to help the farmers and artisans the oligarchy agreed to government reforms
Why was Draco unsuccessful at setting up a constitution and reform the government in 594 B.C.E?
his first attempt was unsuccessful because his punishments were too harsh
Who wrote a constitution to help with reforms after Draco tried?
A rich merchant named Solon
What were the reforms that Solon put in place?
set a limit on how much land a person could own; setup an Assembly and it was the Assembly that had the power to pass laws; erased all debts; setup an Assembly and it was the Assembly that had the power to pass laws; offered citizenship to non-Athenian artisans; ordered every father to teach their son a trade
What was the result of Solon's constitution?
people got involved in government and trade increased
What did the rich or poor think of Solon?
he did not make everyone happy, the rich thought he went to far, the poor didn't think he went far enough
Who took over after Solon? Who supported him?
Peisistratus took over and was supported by the lower classes
What did Peisistratus do after he took over for Solon?
he divided large estates among farmers who had no land; a person didn't have to be a citizen to own land; he encouraged sculptures and other pieces of art
Who took over for Peisistratus when he died? What happened to them?
his sons took over; they were overthrown by the Spartans
Who overthrew the Spartans after Peisistratus in 508 BCE?
What did Cleisthenes do?
he put a democratic constitution into place which included the right to freedom of speech
How long did Cleisthenes reforms last? What did the reforms do?
almost 300 years; opened the Assembly to males over the age of 20, the Assembly elected 10 generals to run the Athenians army and navy; these 10 generals served as chief magistrates; one was named commander-in-chief
What did the Council of Five Hundred do? How did they run the council?
they handled the daily business of Athens; the Council was chosen from a pot and no one could serve more than two years; every citizen had a chance to be a member; members were chosen by lot (you are in a drwaing), NOT by voting
What did the Council of Five Hundred believe?
they believed in an election people who had money or could speak well had an unfair advantage; they believed every citizen was smart enough to hold office
What was the only exception to the Council?
during war, when a general was needed
Under Cleisthenes, what were citizens required to do?
educate their sons; they either had a tutor or attended private school
What did boys study under Cleisthenes?
Writing, Mathematics, Music, Sports, they memorized Homer and the other Greek poets
When did Athenian males become citizens? What did they do?
at the age of 18, they would take an oath at the temple of the god Zeus
In 545 B.C.E who conquered Ionia, the Greek city-states in Asia Minor and the Aegean Island?
Who did the Ionians request help from? What happened?
Athens, but after 5 years of fighting, the Persians defeated the Ionians
What did Darius, the Persian leader, do? What happened?
he sent troops to mainland Greece, the Persians landed on the plain of Marathon, 26 miles northeast of Athens, the Greeks attacked the Persians and defeated them
Who ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens? Why did he do this?
Pheidippides, to announce the Greek victory
What happened to Pheidippides?
he yelled out Nike!, the Greek goddess of victory, and then collapsed and died from the run
Where does the company Nike get the name of its' shoes and clothing?
it takes its name from the Greek goddess of victory, Nike
What was found in Athens after the Battle of Marathon?
How did the silver mines help the Greeks?
it helped them fund the building of new ships, giving them the largest navy in Greece
Why did the Greeks build up their navy?
they built new ships to prepare for a potential Persian return
Under what ruler did the Persians return to Greece?
under the son of Darius, Xerxes
Why did 20 Greek city-states unite?
to fight against the Persians
Who led the army? who led the navy?
The Spartans led the army, Athenians the navy
How did the Greeks hold off the Persians?
7,000 Greek soldiers headed for the pass of Thermopylae; they held them off for 3 days allowing the citizens of Athens to flee for the island of Salamis; all but 300 Spartans (the movie is roughly based off this) and 700 other Greek soldiers remained at Thermopylae
What happened in the battle between the Greeks and Persians?
the Persians, with the help of a traitor, found their way around the pass, killing all the soldiers, the made it to Athens and set fire to the city; the Greeks fooled the Persians into a trap, as they had them sail into the strait between Athens and Salamis
narrow body of water
How did the strait help the Greeks hold off the Persians?
only a few Persian ships could enter the strait at a time, giving the Athens navy a chance
How would you describe Athenian ships?
smaller and faster
How would you describe Persian ships?
larger and harder to control in the strait
At the end of the Persian wars what happened?
The Persians were defeated and Xerxes headed back to Persia; the Persian troops left behind fought the Greeks at the Battle of Plataea; The Greeks won the battle, ending the Persian Wars
Who ruled Ionia after the Persian Wars?
What did the Greeks set up? Where was it located?
the defensive league; on the island of Delos
What was the defensive league known as?
the Delian League
Which city-state did not join the defensive league?
Once a city-state joined the defensive league, what could they not do?
they could not leave without the permission of the other members
What did Athens get from the defensive league?
Athens gained a tremendous amount of power from the defensive league and it turned into the Athenian Empire
Who is the leader of Athens after the Persian wars
What was Pericles known for?
he was known as the "first citizen" of Athens; he rebuilt Athens, he built palaces and temples on the Acropolis; he built the Parthenon, a temple in honor of the goddess Athena
Where did the money come from to build up Athens?
all this building was done with money belonging to the Delian league
Why did Pericles have Long Walls built?
they were parallel fortified walls with tile roofs; they connected Athens and Piraeus-the seaport of Athens; they allowed Athens to get supplies during war
How long did Pericles rule Athens for?
How did the other city-states react to Athens?
the more powerful Athens became, the more the other Greek city-states disliked them
What did Athens do to start the Peloponnesian War?
they attacked a Spartan ally, which lasted 30 years
When did the Peloponnesian War end?
it ended in 404 B.C.E. when Athens surrendered to Sparta
How many people did Athens lose after the Peloponnesian War?
Between the war and a plague, Athens lost more than 25% of their people
What did Athenian males do after the war?
thousands of young Athenian males joined the Persian army as mercenaries; Sparta took over Athens in 404 B.C.E., then there was a revolt and the Athenians took over and setup another democracy
What were Greeks interested in after the Peloponnesian war?
they were more interested in making money and having a good time
How did the upper and lower classes relate?
there was a bitterness between the upper and lower classes within the city-states
Who ruled Greece after the Peloponnesian war? How did they feel about the city-states?
Sparta ruled Greece; they rule harshly
Who ruled Thebes after the Spartans overthrew it?
Spartans in 371 B.C.E, but they were no better than the Spartans
What happened to the Greek city-states?
they continually weakened until Philip II of Macedonia conquered Greece in 338 B.C.E.
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