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Chemistry Chapter 14 and 15 study guide
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Gravity
Terms in this set (53)
Properties of an acid
pH lower than 7
Sour
Turn litmus paper pink
Conduct electric current
Reacts with base forms salt and water
Reacts with metals produce H2 gas
Properties of a base
pH higher than 7
Bitter
Turn litmus paper blue
Conduct electric current
Slippery
Formula for Hydrochloric acid
HCl
Formula for Hydroxide
OH
Formula for Sulfur hydroxide
SOH2
Formula for Sodium hydroxide
NaOH
Formula for Acetic acid
CH3COOH
Formula for Potassium hydroxide
KOH
Formula for Sulfuric acid
H2SO4
Formula for Nitric acid
HNO3
Formula for Hydrofluoric acid
HF
Formula for Ammonia
NH3
What are the products in a neutralization reaction? Write the skeleton equation.
salt and water
What is the formula for Kw?
[H30+][OH-]
What is the range of the pH scale?
0-14
What is the range for an acid? A base?
acid-0-6 base-8-14
Classify household substances as an acid or a base
Acids-Orange juice, Lemon juice, Soda, Vinegar, Pickles, Strawberry, Peanut butter, Grape juice, Coffee. Bases-Soap, Baking soda, Tums, Deodorant, Hairspray, Bleach, Milk, Ammonia, Lye
What is the Kw at 25 degrees C?
Kw=1.0 x 10^-14 M
What happens to litmus paper in the presence of an acid? A base?
acid-turns pink base-turns blue
Name 2 other acid/base indicators
Phenolphthalein
Methyl blue
What is sulfuric acid used for?
batteries.
most produced
What is phosphoric acid used for?
Fertilizers, drinks, etc
Know strong acids
HCl
HI
H2SO4
HClO4
HClO3
HBr
Know strong bases
KOH
CaOH2
NaOH
CsOH
RbOH
SrOH2
BaOH2
Binary acid
2 elements
Oxyacid
Has oxygen, hydrogen, and another nonmetal.
Anion
H2SO4 -ic
SO4 -ate
Monoprotic
1 hydrogen available
HCl
HNO3
etc
Diprotic
2 hydrogen available
H2SO4
etc
Triprotic
3 hydrogen available
H3PO4
Pure water contains water molecules, ____ ions and hydroxide ions.
hydronium
An amphoteric substance can act as
either an acid or base
Lewis base
An electron pair donor
Lewis acid
An electron pair acceptor
How is a conjugate acid formed?
By adding a proton to a base
Conjugate of a weak acid
strong base
Conjugate of a strong acid
weak base
Conjugate acid-base pair will appear on
opposite sides of chemical equation
Weak base will only attract a ____ slightly
proton
Acids with the suffix -ous
have 1 less oxygen than the suffix -ic
Acids with the suffix -ic
produce anions with the suffix -ate
Common log N is the power to which 10 must be raised to equal N
...
Formula to do calculations for concentration of [H30+] and [OH-]
[H30+][OH-]= 1.0 X 10^14
Formula to do calculations to solve for pH or for [H30+]
pH=-log[H30+]
Formula to do calculations to solve for pOH or for [OH-]
pOH=-log[OH-]
pH+pOH=14
Transition interval
pH range over which an indicator changes color
Transition interval for phenolphthalein
pH8 8.0 to 10.0
Indicator used to study neautralizations of strong acids and bases
bromthymol blue
Indicator used to study neutralizations of strong acids with weak bases
methyl orange
Acid-base titrations
Used to determine volumes of 2 solutions that are chemically equivalent
After performing a titration, what can be calculated?
concentration of an unknown quantity
Primary standard
either a highly pure acid or a highly pure base
Calculate molarity from titrations use the following formula
M(base) V(base) = M(acid) V(acid)
;