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62 terms

Chapter 6 - Integumentary System

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What are the general functions of the skin and integumentary system?
1. Protection
2. Regulation of Body Temperature
3. Communication
4. Excretion of Wastes
5. Vitamin D Production
What is the major organ of the integumentary system?
Skin
____ membranes are found lining the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, respiratory tracts and digestive tracts.
Mucous Membranes
Pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal membranes are all examples of ____.
Serous Membranes
What is difference between serous and mucous membranes?
Serous membranes secrete a watery fluid, while mucous membranes secrete a thicker, stickier fluid
____ membranes form the inner linings of joints.
Synovial Membranes
What is another name for cutaneous membrane?
The Skin
The skin consists of what two layers?
Epidermis and Dermis
The deeper layer of skin is known as the ___.
Dermis
____ is the superficial layer of skin.
Epidermis
What is the subcutaneous layer?
layer of connective tissue (adipose and LCT) that binds the skin to underlying structures.
What is another name for the subcutaneous layer?
Hypodermis
List the layers of the epidermis start from the most superficial layer.
Stratum Corneium
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Which layer of the epidermis contains the youngest cells?
Stratum Basale
Which layer of the epidermis contains the only cells capable of cellular division?
Stratum Basale
Which layer of the epidermis is only found in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet?
Stratum Lucidum
Which layer of the epidermis contains melanocytes?
Stratum Basale
What are melanocytes?
dark cells which secrete a dark pigment called melanin
What is the function of melanin?
to absorb ultraviolet light and protect us from sunburns
Which layer of the epidermis consists of only dead cells that have been replaced by keratin?
Stratum Corneum
What is the function of the epidermis?
Waterproofing and Protection
Why do cells of the epidermis die as they are pushed closer to the surface?
The cells get farther and farther away from their blood supply.
Which layer of skin contains blood vessels?
Dermis
What type of tissue makes up the dermis?
Connective Tissue
How is the cellular division of the epidermis related to the amount of pressure the cells receive.
More pressure equals higher rate of cellular division
What are four items that affect the color of an individuals skin?
Melanin
Diet
Chemicals
Blood Vessels
What is the function of the hypodermis?
Insulation, Cushion, and Connecting the skin to underlying structures
What is the function of keratin?
Prevents underlying structures from drying out
What accessory organ is responsible for producing goose flesh?
Contraction of arrector pilli muscles
Which accessory organ secretes sebum?
Sebaceous Glands
What is theh function of sebum?
to moisturize the skin and keep the skin soft an pliable.
What is another word for sebum?
oil
What is hair made of?
dead epithelial cells
Which layer of skin houses accessory organs?
Dermis
The active growing part of the hair is the ____
root
____ is a tube-like depression in which the hair grows.
hair follicle
____ are accessory organs that respond to elevated body temperatures
sweat glands
Which gland is usually associated with hair follicles?
sebaceous glands
____ is the portion of hair that extends away from the surface of the skin.
shaft
What causes hair color?
Melanin and Trichosiderin (red)
____ are protective coverings on the tips of the fingers and toes.
nails
Which sweat glands respond to body temperature?
Eccrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands function throughout and individuals entire life?
Eccrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands secrete a watery sweat?
Eccrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands are widely distribute all over the body?
Eccrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands respond to fear or stress?
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands start functioning after puberty?
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands secrete an oily sweat?
Apocrine Sweat Gland
Which sweat glands secrete a sweat that bacteria like to metabolize and produce strong odors?
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Which sweat glands are most numerous in the armpit and groin?
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Which receptor in the skin respond to pressure
Pacinian Corpuscles
Which receptor in the skin detect fine touch?
Meissner's Corpuscles
How does the skin regulate body temperature when the body is too hot?
dialation of dermal blood vessels and sweating
How does the skin regulate body temperature when the body is too cold?
constriction of dermal blood vessels and apilli muscle contraction
How does the skin protect the body?
prevents loss of body fluids
protects against physical damage and UV radiation
protects against invasion of microorganisms
How does the skin regulate body temperature?
Insulation (hypodermis)
Constriction or Dialation of dermal blood vessels
Sweating or shivering
What stimuli is detected by the skin and communicated to the brain?
Temperature, Touch, Pain
How does the skin secrete metabolic wastes?
sweat glands release small amt of metabolic wastes
When does the skin produce Vitamin D?
when exposed to UV radiation
What causes most skin cancers?
UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds
Why are light skinned people more likely to develop skin cancer?
They have less melanin to absorb UV radiation
Skin cancer that arises from the melanocytes is called ___.
Cutaneous melanoma