AP Human Geo Agriculture
Terms in this set (42)
the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
term used to describe large-scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
earliest form of plant cultivation; reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Von Thunen model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy.
Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
Second Agricultural Revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
He believed the experiments necessary to establish agriculture and settle in one place would occur in lands of plenty. Only in such places could people afford to experiment with raising plants or take the time to capture animals and breed them for domestication
-A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
-Prevalent in rainforests
-Example: slash and burn
An animal feeding operation, prevalent in factory farms, whose primary goal is to drastically fatten mature animals prior to slaughter.
Max distance to keep milk fresh while transporting
form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
intensive commercial agriculture
any kind of agriculture activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
extensive commercial agriculture
A crop or livestock system in which land quality or extent is more important than capital or labor inputs in determining output
The practice of planting taller, stronger crops to shelter lower, more fragile ones from tropical downpours
A system of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
the cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country
-the view that population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
-Population growth stimulates intensification in agricultural development
the cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
first region that combined the use of plants and animals (domestication)
movement of herds
subsistence agriculture problems
-need lots of land to feed few
-lack of technology
-no capital and land ownership
challenges for commercial farmers
challenges for subsistence farmers
which type of agriculture involves the greatest percentage of people in the world today?
4 Agricultural Hearths
Fertile Crescent (SW Asia), Ancient Egypt, N. China, Indus Valley (S. Asia)
a principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
township and range system
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
a linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods, package them for distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market
Koppen climatic classification system
developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
green revolution advantages
Productive rice varieties
green revolution disadvantages
Reduced genetic diversity
Increased vulnerability to pests
Soil erosion & contamination
Reduced soil fertility
according to carl sauer where did agriculture begin
Southeast and South Asia