Upgrade to remove ads
TExES ESL 154 LAWS
English as a Second language
Terms in this set (29)
1974 Lau vs. Nichols 1974
was a civil rights case that was brought by Chinese American students living in San Francisco, California who had limited English proficiency. The students claimed that they were not receiving special help in school due to their inability to speak English, help which they argued they were entitled to under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 because of its ban on educational discrimination on the basis of national origin.
1978 Castaneda vs Pickard 1981
This case was filed against the Raymondville Independent School District (RISD) in Texas by Roy Castañeda, the father of two Mexican-American children. Mr. Castañeda claimed that the RISD was discriminating against his children because of their ethnicity. He argued that the classroom his children were being taught in was segregated, using a grouping system for classrooms based on criteria that were both ethnically and racially discriminating.
1974 Lau v. Nichols background
parents of Asian students brought suit since there were no programs for ESL
1974 Lau v. Nichols decision
court decided civil right were being violated court mandated schools take effective measures for ESL students
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
separate but equal (segregation) is constitutional
1954 Brown v. Board of education
overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
said intentional segregation is unequal
1975 Lau Remedies
mandated bilingual education
1. identify and evaluate national origin minority students' English skills
2. appropriate instruction determined
3. decide when LEP ready for mainstream class
4. determine professional standards teachers must mee
1982 Plyler v. Doe
undocumented immigrants must be given same education
2001 No Child Left Behind
language instruction for LEP students will be funded under Title III
1923ish Meyers v. Nebraska
made clear that 14th amendment provides protection for language minorities
said state can legislate language used in schools for instruction but must allow language classes outside of school
1978 Castaneda v. Pickard
mandates programs for language minority students must be
1. based on sound educational theory
2. implemented effectively with sufficient resources and personnel
3. evaluated to determine effectiveness
1974 Lau vs. Nichols
Established that a district must provide an ESL or Bilingual Program if there are 20 or more ELLs in a grade level.
1920-1960 English Immersion
1920s-1960s; These policies are the dominant method of instruction of language minority students. Few or no remedial services are available, and students are generally held at the same grade level until enough English is mastered to advance in subject areas.
1964 Civil Rights Act
1964; Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of all federally assisted programs.
1968 The Bilingual Education Act Title VII
1968;Establishes federal policy for bilingual education for economically disadvantage language minority students, allocates funds for innovative programs, and recognizes the unique educational speaking students.
1978 Amendments to Title VII
1978; Emphasize the strictly transitional nature of native language instruction, expand eligibility to students who are limited English Proficient (LEP), and permit enrollment of English-Speaking students in bilingual programs
2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
2001; the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 appropriates funds to states to improve the education of English Language Learners by assisting children to learn English and meet challenging state academic achievement standards.
1982 Plyer vs. Doe
1982 NOT 1971; Under fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, the state does not have the right to deny a free public education to undocumented immigrant children.
1971 United States vs. State of Texas
1971; This desegregation case centered on the issue of discrimination and whether the San Felipe and Del Rio school districts were providing Mexican Americans an equal educational opportunity. On August 6, Judge William Wayne Justice ordered the consolidation of the two districts. As a result, the federal court came down with a court order that eliminates discrimination on grounds of race, color, or national origin in Texas public charter schools.
1974 Serna vs. Portales
1974; The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Spanish surnamed students' achievement levels were below those of their Anglo counterparts. The court ordered Portales Municipal Schools to implement a bilingual curriculum, revise procedures for assessing achievement, and hire bilingual personnel.
1978 Cinton vs. Brentwood
1978; The Federal District Court for the Eastern District of New York rejected the Brentwood School District's proposed bilingual program on the grounds that it would violate "Lau Guidelines" by unnecssarily segregating Spanish-speaking students from their English-speaking peers in music and art.
1978 Rios vs. Reed
1978; The Federal District Court for the Eastern district of New York found that the Pastchogue-Medford School districts transitional bilingual program was basically a course in English and that students were denied an equal educational opportunity by not receiving academic instruction in Spanish. The court wrote: "A denial of educational opportunities to a child of the first year of schooling is not justified by demonstrating that the educational program employed will teach the child English sooner than a program comprised of more extensive Spanish Instruction.
1978 Castaneda vs. Pickard
1978 NOT 1981; Reputed to be the most significant court decision affecting language minority students after Lau. In responding to the plaintiffs claims that Ramondville Texas Independent School Districts language remediation programs violated the Equal Opportunities Act of 1974, the Fifth Circuit of Appeals formulated a set of basic standards to determine school district compliance. The school must pursue a program based on an educational theory recognized as sound or, at least, as legitimate experimental strategy. The school must actually implement the program with instructional practices, resources,a nd personnel necessary to transfer theory to reality. The school must not persist in a program that fails to produce results.
1981 United States vs. State of Texas
1981; The U.S. District Court for the eastern district of Texas, Tyler Division, instructs TEA to phase in mandatory bilingual education in grades K-12. This decision outlined specific requirements including: three year monitoring cycles, identification of LEP students, and a language survery for students entering school. It also established the need for exit criteria.
1973 Keyes vs. School District #1
1973 NOT 1983; A U.S. District Court found that a Denver public school district had failed to adequately implement a plan for language minority students, which is the second element of the "Castaneda Test".
1987 Gomez vs. Illinois
1987; The Seventh Court of Appeals ruled that State Education Agencies are also required under EEOA to ensure that language minority student's educational needs are met.
1969 HB 103
1969; The 61st legislature past the state's first bilingual education bill. This Act acknowledged English as the primary language of instruction in school and allowed but did not require school districts to provide bilingual instruction through Grade 6.
1973 SB 121
1973; The 63rd legislature passed the Texas Bilingual Education and Training Act. This Act directed each school district in which 20 or more LEP students in the same grade shared the same language classification the previous year to institute a program of bilingual instruction beginning with the 1974-75 school year.
1981 SB 477
1981; This Act strengthened the guidelines necessary to implement the state bilingual plan and established the Language Proficiency Assessment Committees (LPAC).
This set is often in folders with...
ESL Supplemental Test (154) - Scenarios
ESL 154 Test
TExES 154 ESL Supplemental Domain II
You might also like...
ESL Supplement 154 Court Cases
Florida Consent Decree
ESL Court Cases
CTEL Court Cases & Legal Definitions
Other sets by this creator
Spelling Fry Words
Spelling Fry words; Short vowel sounds
500 Fry Words