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Chapter 3 - Intro to Psych
Terms in this set (44)
central nervous system (CNS)
the part of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system cells that provide structural support, promote efficient communication between neurons, and serve as scavengers, removing cellular debris.
the cells that process and transmit information in the nervous system.
-building blocks of nervous system
-information travels in form of electrical signal
-chemicals called neurotransmitters
parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that usually relaxes or returns the body to a less active, restful state.
somatic nervous system
nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system that transmit sensory information to the central nervous system (CNS) and those that transmit information from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
all the nerves of the peripheral nervous system that serve involuntary systems of the body, such as the internal organs and glands.
fingerlike projections from a neuron's soma that receive incoming messages from other neurons.
a long projection that extends from a neuron's soma; it transmits electrical impulses toward the adjacent neuron and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters.
Name 5 types of Neurons
nerve cells that receive incoming sensory information from the sense organs (eye, ear, skin, tongue, nose).
nerve cells that carry commands for movement from the brain to the muscles of the body.
neurons that communicate only with other neurons.
tiny sacs in the terminal buttons that contain neurotransmitters.
a neurotransmitter with wide-ranging effects: involved in dreaming and in controlling emotional states, especially anger, anxiety, and depression.
a neurotransmitter released in response to behaviors that feel good or are rewarding to the person or animal; also involved in function: voluntary motor control.
supports vital life functions & encompasses the medulla and pons
a hindbrain structure that extends directly from the spinal cord; regulates breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
function: controls heart rate & respiration
a hindbrain structure that serves as a bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity.
function: controls sleep and arousal
a hindbrain structure involved in body movement, balance, coordination, fine-tuning motor skills, and cognitive activities such as learning and language.
function: controls moter skills, muscular movement, and coordination
reticular formation: collection of neurons involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns
contain the cerebrum and thalamus
contains the brain stem, medulla, pons and cerebellum
Name the 3 regions of the brain
hindbrain, forebrain and midbrain
each of the large halves of the brain that are covered with convolutions, or folds.
function: controls senses, thinking, learning, emotion, voluntary movement, and consciousness
a forebrain structure that receives information from the senses and relays it to the cerebral cortex for processing.
function: relays infomation btwn lower and higher brain centers
contains the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia
a limbic structure; the master regulator of almost all major drives and motives we have, such as hunger, thirst, temperature, and sexual behavior; also controls the pituitary gland.
function: regulates hunger, thirst, temperature, motivations, sexual behavior, and aggression
a limbic structure that wraps itself around the thalamus; plays a vital role in learning and memory.
function: forms and retrieves memories
small, almond-shaped structure located directly in front of the hippocampus; has connections with many important brain regions and is important for processing emotional information, especially that related to fear.
function: controls emotion and aggression (fear)
a belt like structure in the middle of the brain that plays an important role in attention and cognitive control.
function: attention and cognitive control
a collection of structures surrounding the thalamus involved in voluntary motor control.
function: voluntary motor
cognition, recent memory, planning of movement, and some aspects of emotion
hearing and advanced visual processing
the thin outer layer of the cerebrum, in which much of human thought, planning, perception, and consciousness takes place.
outer layer governs higher brain function, ie thinking, learning and consciousness
controls muscles (voluntary movement)
controls senses (body sensations)
nonverbal info, ie perception, visual recognition, and emotion
receives info only from left side of body and controls left side of body
main language center (speech/grammar)
receives info only from right side of body and controls right side of body
neural bridge consisting of white mylinated fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain
the brain's ability to adopt new functions, reorganize itself, or make new neural connections throughout life, as a function of experience.
system of glands that secrete and regulate hormones in the body.
hormones, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal gland
Recommended textbook explanations
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
E Bruce Goldstein, Robert Hershberger
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
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