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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (24)

-expresses one of the basic assumptions of nativism in this declaration

-these theorist point that unless there are severe physical or mental limitations, human beings will acquire language and that the innate drive to acquire language is so powerful that many humans talk in spite of what may seem to be insurmountable limitations

-another basic assumption of the nativist perspective is that because language is acquired so quickly and so early in the child's life, learning alone cannot adequately account for acquisition .

-if language is learned , the nativist argues we would expect the teacher to provide models that allow children to develop progressively more sophisticated hypothesis about the rules and forms they are learning and we would certainly expect the teacher to indicate clearly when a child's productions are right or wrong

-one of the most compelling arguments for the nativist perspective is the language is essentially the same experience for all human beings no matter what language they speak , where they live or how they interact with their language models.

-some languages such as english stress word order in conveying meaning through grammaticaly sentences. italian on the other hand allows more freedom in word order because the inflections on verbs carry much of the information for meaning.

-all languages have rules to indicate changes in tense and plurality and draw sets of speech sounds from a common pool of sound and list goes. these commonalities or linguistic universals are evidence, say the nativists that language is an ability human possess not by virtue of specific learning or teaching but by the virtue of their humanness

-all of these assumptions led to the creation of a concept that underlines the nativists undeestanding of language development: the language acquisition device or LAD. the LAD is an innate language reservoir filled iwth information about rules of language structure

-once the speaker knows that these rules are she can create an inlimite number of grammatical sentences, including the possibility of sentences that have never been produced by any other human, language acquisition therefore is a matter of discovering and applying the rules of regularities of ones native language
-this is what usually happens in nature versus nurture arguments so the emergence of a compromise view was probably inevitable although it has emerged later than some might have expected. this middle ground view is known as social interactionism.

-other place more emphasis on the contributions of the environment but all agree that the interaction of biological abilities with envrionmental influences accounts for languages acquistion and they note the importance of children's intteraction with their parents or other caregiver.

-for example, these theories assume that language acquisition is a product of children's early social interactions with the important people in their life .

-proponents of this viewpoint believe that children communicate and interact socially whit other people before they are able to produce language forms . they believe that language develop before they are able to produce language forms. they believe that language develops as a natural consequence of these interactions. that is children's attempts to communicate and socialize prompt their parents and other caregivers to provide the language appropriate for these exhanges.

-she suggests that a 9 month old child requests a cookie by reaching for it and vocalizing with an utterance suc has "uh uh uh" while making eye contact with her mother.

-the child is able to make a request from the beggining before she has any language and she certainly is able to interact with other people before she can speak. as she acquires language however her communicative and interactive abilities improve and she is able to make her request known in more socially appropriate more adult like ways.

-james example illustrates another emphasis in the interactionist perspective. unlike the nativists , who stress structure independent of communicative function or intent, interactionists focus on language use known as pragmatics .

-the recognition of the child's intent and associated communicative attempt prompts the caregiver not only to meet the intent but to provide an appropriate language model to support the intent.

-over time even though a given intent remains constant, the child acquires more sophisticated language forms by which he can make the intent more immediately and clearly known to his caregivers .

-behaviorists however ,view children as passive recipients of language shaped by selective reinforcement.

-in comparison to the nativists. the interactionists concede the children come to the langue acquisition process with in thecognitive and linguistic abilities.

-children's interactions socially and communicatively with the important people in their environments are the most important factors in the acquisition of language.

-in fact, like the nativists they try to discover common forms of structure in a variety of languages and cultures. they believe however that these forms are fairly simple imitations of models to which children are exposed in social interactions .

-this style of speech has been given several names but perhaps the most popular and descriptive is motherese.

-this style of speech has been given several names, but perhaps the most popular and descriptive is motherese.

-the sue of short, simple sentences seems to provide the child with models he can reasonably expect to imitate.

-one facet of motherese that seems to be related to language acquisition is the use of technique known as expansion. expansion occurs when the adult repeats what a child has said but adds additional words and/or structure.

-remember that the interactionists view emphasizes the importance of the interaction between the child and her caregivers.

-in this way, the verbal and nonverbal interactions allows the adult to simplify and reformulate language forms in ways that certainly facilitate improved communication and may facilitate language development
-to appreciate the information processing theory, one must first understand how it relates to other theoretical perspective and how these other perspective relate to one another

-the cognitivist view stresses logical structure. into this context, we bring the information processing theory. this theory shares with the behaviorist perspective a greater emphasis on how language is learned than on the abstract rule system that presumably underlines language.

-the basic assertion of this theoretical view is that function not abstract grammar ,generates language structure. this view suggests that a human being processes information in much the same way a computer does. human being has an information processing system hat gathers information from the environment and puts that information into a symbolic codes

-language acquisition occurs when a child experiences and gathers language evidence in the productions of her speech and language models and uses that evidence to make fundamental changes within their personal information processing system

-according to this view , children are not born with a internally wired systems for language. rather they are born with a potential for all kinds of connections between symbols and the things and ideas symbols can represent .

-children internalize language and the connections between langauge symbols and the things and ideas they represent because there is a constant inpouring of language evidence .

-the information processing theory suggests that the processing patterns responsible for the acquisition of language are parallel rather than serial.

-if for example a child's earlist language evidence is filled with examples of structures that make requests ,language structures that fill the requesting will emerge early .

-they suggests as already mentioned that the child processing known as parallel distributed processing (PDP)

-a basic premise of this model is that children are not born with an innate understanding of language but with a powerfull PDP device that has the capacity to process many different forms of information . inclining language information .

-this situation changes. however as children's experiences with language increase and become more differentiated.words, phonological patterns and laguage forms that are experienced repeatedly activate and strengthen connections in the PDP device.

-as the name of the model(PDP) suggests , the patterns or conenctions that are most consistente with the language evidence the child is gathering win the competition. they are trained within the child's communication system.

-patterns that do not match the evidence lose the competition and are discarded .

-bates, bretherton and synder suggests that children are innately predisposed to acquire language as they are innately predisposed to acquire to acquire other behavior . in this sense they believe that there is a biological or inante basis for language acquisition