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32 terms

Chapter 17 Revolutions

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absolute monarchy
a form of government headed by a ruler, or monarch, with unlimited power.
divine right
the belief that a monarch recieved authority to rule from god and therefore could not be questioned.
estates
the three social classes into which France was divided before the French Revolution including the clergy, the aristocracy, and common people.
aristocracy
the class of a society made up of member of noble families, usually the most powerful groups.
peasants
a small farm owner of farm worker.
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a statement issued by the French National Assembly in August 1789 that all men were born and remain free and equal in rights.
Reign of Terror
the period in Revolutionary France when suspected traitors were beheaded in great numbers.
Latin America
the cultural region including Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America that has been strongly influenced by Spain and Portugal.
mestizo
a person of Nativem American and Spanish ancestry.
confederation
a group of states or provinces under a central government.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Haitian general; in 1802 he led a succesful slave revolution, leading to the independence of Haiti in 1804.
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest and revolutionary who led a revolt that started the Mexican war of independence.
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and revolutionary who suceeded Miguel Hidalgo as rebel leader and issued a declaration of independance from Spain in 1813. He was captured and killed by Spanish soldiers in 1815.
Agustin de Iturbide
Mexican soldier and leader; he won Mexican independance from Spain and became ruler of Mexico from 1822 to 1823.
Simon Bolivar
leader if the struggle for independance in South America; his armies freed Columbia, Venezuela, and Peru from Spanish rule.
Jose de San Martin
Argentine soldier who led revolutions that freed Argentina and Chile from Spanish rule.
Hispaniola
a Caribbean island settled by Spaniards in 1493; a present day island that is divided into the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
Dolores
a city in central Mexico where Miguel Hidalgo began Mexico's independance movement in 1810.
Venezuela
a country in northern South America on the Caribbean Sea.
Industrial Revolution
a time when great technological advances changed the way goods were made and the ways people lived; it began in England in the 1700s and then spread throughout Europe and the U.S.
textile
a cloth fabric that is either woven or knitted.
factory
a building in which machines used to manufacture goods are located.
middle class
during the Industrial Revolution, the new class of business people.
working class
people who work for wages, such as factory workers.
socialism
an economic and political system based on collective or government ownership and control of all resources and industry; also a political philoshophy based on the writings of Karl Marx.
John Kay
English watchmaker who invented the flying shuttle used in weaving.
James Hargreaves
English inventor of the spinning jenny.
James Watt
Scotish engineer and inventor who developed a steam engine that burned coal in 1765.
Karl Marx
German philosopher and economist. His ideas called Marxism, formed the basis of communism.
gross domestic product
the total value of goods and services produced by a country during a year.
cartogram
a special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present economic or other kinds of data for comparison.
imperialism
the extension of a nations power over other lands by military, political, or economic means.