97 terms

Spring 2018 8th Grade Final Exam Study Quizlet

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Shay's Rebellion
-Shay's rebellion was a rebellion that occurred in 1786 in Massachusetts
-Farmers went through a recession (economic hard times), could not pay taxes so the government took their land. When this happened, the farmers took up arms to rebel
-The US Government struggled to organize a response to the rebellion, leading to desired changes in the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
-First rules that established the US government during and after the American revolution
-They included one branch, a legislature
-Each state had one vote, 9 of 13 states had to approve new laws
Problems with Articles of Confederation
-The Gov couldn't tax, leading to inability to pay off debt and the inability to pay for a military
-9 out of 13 states had to agree to pass a new law, so few laws were ever passed
-13 of 13 states had to approve any changes to the structure of the Articles, it was almost impossible to fix them
-No matter the size of the state, each had the same voting power
Taxation
-Power given to the federal government in the Constitution, it allows the government to charge fees on individuals and businesses that it then uses to provide services
-Pays for the military, debts, schools, roads, infrastructure, and many other things
The Constitution
-Document created to replace the Articles of Confederation in 1787
-It lays out what the government can and can not do; it lays out the structure of our government (ie 3 branches, powers, etc)
Virginia Plan
-A plan for how to structure the new Constitution
-Proposed by delegates from big states
-Called for 3 branches of government, one being a legislative branch with two houses.
-BOTH houses would be based on population
New Jersey Plan
-A plan for how to structure the new Constitution
-Proposed by delegates from small states
-Called for 1 branch of government, a legislature with one house where all states would have an equal amount of votes
3/5ths Compromise
-Decision to count each African Slave as 3/5ths of a person in determining the population of state
-This was important, as it meant that Southern states could have more representatives in the House of Representatives (because their population would be counted as higher)
Great Compromise
-Compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plan that was put into the Constitution
-Created a government with 3 branches. The Legislative Branch would then have two houses, one with equal representation (2 from each state) named the Senate, one with representation based on population named the House of Representatives
Legislative Branch
-Made up of The Senate and the House of Representatives
-Responsible for making laws, setting the budget, controlling taxes, checking the power of the executive and judicial branch, and much more
Judicial Branch
-Branch made up of Supreme Court and all other federal courts
-Checks to make sure that laws passed by Congress or actions of the President follow by the rules set out in the Constitution
Executive Branch
-Branch made up of the President and his cabinet
-Head of the military, can pass executive orders, can veto bills passed by Legislative Branch, appoints Supreme Court justices, and much more
Direct Taxes vs. Indirect Taxes
A tax put on a person directly. This could be on something they buy, their income, or their property
Indirect Taxes
Taxes put on things coming into the country, sometimes called impost or import tax or tariff because it is a tax on goods being brought into the country
Direct Taxes
Taxes put on people directly, today they are placed on the things people buy, income, and property
Explain how the great compromise led to the use of both the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan in our Constitution.
-The House of Representatives used votes based off of population and the Senate had an equal amount of votes for each state.
-So they used the Virginia plan in the House of Representatives that went according to population, they had three branches, and the Legislative Branch had two houses
-They used the New Jersey plan in the Senate, where all states have equal power
What was the 3/5ths compromise and what does it have to do with the House of Representatives?
-This states that each african American person is counted as ⅗ of every white person for population.
-This helped determine how many representatives each state would have
Constitutional Convention
A meeting called in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, the leaders quickly decided that they needed to create a new system of government. They did so, creating the Constitution of the United States
Legislative Branch
Creates laws and has the power to declare war on other countries
Executive Branch
In charge of the military and made up of the President and his Cabinet
Judicial Branch
Made up of the courts in the United States, the highest being the Supreme Court
Judicial Branch
Can strike down unconstitutional laws when challenged in court
Executive Branch
Becomes the head diplomat to foreign countries and has the ability sign bills passed by Congress into Law
House of Representatives
One of the two houses in the legislative branch, it is based on population. It's members are serve two year terms
Senate
One of the two houses in the legislative branch, it is equal for all states (all states get two representatives). It's members serve 6 years terms
Examples of Checks and Balances
-President can Veto bills passed by the Legislative branch
- Senate can veto laws passed by the House, the House can veto laws from the Senate
- The President appoints federal judges, who must be approved by the Senate
- The Judicial Branch can strike down unconstitutional laws
Veto
To not approve a law
Legislature
A body of elected officials that comes together to make laws (the Senate and House of Representatives are both legislatures that make up a large legislature)
Federalism
A system of government that shares power between a national government and state governments
Popular Sovereignty
The idea that a government gets is power from the people, so people should have final say in how the government works
Republic
A government system that allows citizens to elect officials that then govern the nation / state
Limited Government
A type of government in which the government can only do things it is specifically told it can do (usually in a constitution)
Separation of Powers
A philosophy our founding fathers created to make sure no one person or group became to powerful in our government
Electoral College
The system used to elect the president, people vote for who their "elector" should choose for President within each state
1787
Year that the constitutional convention was called (keep in mind that the United States lived under the Articles of Confederation for almost 10 years before the Constitution was created)
George Washington
-First president, General in the continental army during the American Revolution, served 2 terms as president before he turned it down
-As first president, set precedents:
*Serve Two Terms (4 years each)
*Appointing a Cabinet / Having One
*Didn't like political parties
Washington's Cabinet
Washington's Cabinet was made up of the
*Secretary of war (Knox)
*Secretary of state (Jefferson)
*Secretary of treasury (Hamilton)
*And attorney general and the vice president, they headed the executive branch and met together to address executive issues.
Alexander Hamilton
-First Secretary of Treasury (and leader of Federalist Party)
-He led effort to create a federal bank, he believed it did not go against the Constitution
-Believed in an open view of the Constitution.
Bond
An agreement to give a loan that will be paid back, plus interest.
* France and the U.S. used bonds after the war for American freedom.
Economic Crisis / US Solution
-The French demanded that the U.S. pay back thousands of dollars they had loaned during the American Revolution
-The US was in debt so they built a national bank to save money to pay off debt.
-Put a tax on imports, and taxed whiskey
-Federal Government took on all state debts
Tarrif
A tax put on imports into a country.
-Used by Hamilton to raise money to pay down debts
Whiskey Rebellion
-New tax on whiskey led grain farmers to grow angry and lead armed rebellion against government and tax collectors in 1791
*Was first challenge to federal authority after passing of US Constitution
*Washington led an army of 12,000 against the rebellion to squash it and show that Federal rules must be followed
Political Party
-A group of people that organize around shared beliefs about how their government should run
*Work together to elect officials and pass laws
Historic: Republican, federalists, whigs, democrats
Modern: Democrats and Republicans
Republicans
-Believed the states should have more power.
*Led by Thomas Jefferson.
*Opposed national bank and tariffs.
*pro french
*Wanted no Federal taxes and a very small federal government
*Federal government can only do things listed in the constitution
Federalists
-They believed that the Federal government should have more power over the states.
*Strong central governments
*Open interpretation of the Constitution/felt government should do all things necessary and proper
*Alexander Hamilton and John Adam were leaders.
*Wanted a national bank
*Pro-British
*Economy based around trade
John Adams
-Second president and first vice president of the United States
*Avoided war with France
*Controversially passed Alien and Sedition Acts.
XYZ Affair and Foreign Policy
-France demanded a bribe from US, they were then in the war against England
*Expected US to help to return favor of French help in American Revolution
*John Adams and US did not get involved
*Set a precedent that the United States would not get its military involved in foreign affairs (isolationist foreign policy)
Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798
-Alien Act: Extended the time to become a citizen from 5 years to 14
-Sedition Act: nearly completely abolished the First Amendment, making it illegal to mock the government or criticize Congress or the President
-Sedition Acts violated the first amendment
States Rights (in responding to Federal Laws they disagree with)
-States challenged new Federal laws with their own laws
-The states were soon allowed to challenge a law that was unconstitutional by taking it to Supreme Court.
Thomas Jefferson
-3rd President of the U.S. (and first Secretary of State)
*Purchased the Louisiana Territory from France
*Hired Lewis and Clark for the expedition to the Pacific ocean
*Shrunk size of Federal Government
Marburry vs Madison and Judicial Review
-A Supreme Court Case that formed the base for Judicial Review
*Judicial Review means the Supreme court gets the right to strike down laws that are unconstitutional.
Jefferson's Policies as President
*Strictly interpreted the Constitution (so buying the Louisiana Territory was difficult for him)
*Believed people should be independent farmers and bought more land to make this so
*Eliminated all federal taxes.
*Tried to ease disputes between federalists and Republicans.
The Louisiana Purchase
-The Purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 by Thomas Jefferson's government
*Purchase from Napoleon for 4 cents an acre from France
*Jefferson mostly desired New Orleans as a port city for farmers to sell crops
*Explored by Lewis and Clark and
*Doubled the size of the US
Lewis and Clarks Expedition / Importance
-Were hired in 1803, even before the purchase, to explore western lands and look for a water route to Pacific
-Was a harsh experience, learned about the landscape environment and life of the US and discovered new species,
-Left 1803, reached the Pacific Ocean 1805
-Their mapping of the land encouraged future settlement of the new land by American settlers
The War of 1812
-US war with England from 1812-1815
*Began after England sunk US trade ships that were trading with France; England armed Native Americans in the West, and because the US was increasingly proud to be American
*Fought on East coast in Virginia and Maryland, in Michigan, and in Louisiana
*Ended in stalemate and peace treaty, but the US felt it a victory for standing up to British aggression
Andrew Jackson
-7th president elected in 1829-1837
*Seen as an "ordinary citizen" who worked to represent the concerns of all Americans
*Rose to fame for service as general during War of 1812
*Founder of the Democratic Party
*Helped create and pass the Indian Removal Act to force Cherokee off their lands / didn't listen to Supreme Court ruling
-First president to ignore Supreme Court ruling. -Nicknamed Old Hickory, on $20 bill
Andrew Jackson's Impact on US Politics
-Founded the Democratic Party
-His failed election in 1824 led to changes in voting systems whereby the popular vote determined the electoral college vote
*Seen as the leader of a movement to get all US citizens involved in politics, not just the upper class
Andrew Jackson's Controversial Decision
-His ignoring of the Court's ruling when Georgia pushed into Cherokee territory led to the Trail of Tears in the 1830's
-The Indian Removal Act moved Cherokee further west to designated areas
-This system became the precedent that the US government followed in US relations with Native Americans
Cherokee Peoples
-One of the largest Native American tribes, they originally lived in the American Southwest (today's northern Georgia, Alabama) -
*Led by Major Ridge, the Cherokee fought to keep their land using the US court system
*Eventually pushed off their land and they had to travel to the west (Oklahoma)
*Thousands would die on the way there, becoming known as Trail of Tears.
Trail of Tears
-The name for the journey to the west of the Mississippi (to Oklahoma) by the Cherokee People in 1838-39
-Resulted in the death of 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokee to follow the trail
-Andrew Jackson and the Georgia State militia and rounded up and pushed the Cherokee off their land. -A controversial US decision that would set a precedent in future relations with Native Americans
James Madison
Founding father and 4th President, his presidency was most influenced by involvement in the War of 1812
James Monroe
5th President of the United States, responsible for reshaping American foreign policy in the western hemisphere
Monroe Doctrine
Idea that American foreign policy was based around a "special relationship" with Latin America in which we would resist all attempts by Europe to interfere in countries in our hemisphere.
John Quincy Adams
6th President, elected controversially after losing the popular and electoral college vote to Andrew Jackson
"Civilization" policy
The policy of the United States government under Jefferson that had sent missionaries to Native American lands to teach them how to live like white, anglo saxon (English) people. Cherokee leaders adopted this system.
Sacagawea
Shoshone guide that helped Louis and Clark in their journey across the west
Nationalism
Intense pride in one's country; people consider the country they come from to be part of their identity as a person
Manifest Destiny
- Americans believed westward expansion was their destiny, which they called "Manifest Destiny"
- Americans felt they were destined to spread coast to coast and bring technological progress to all of North America
Areas of Western Expansion
Northwest = Oregon Country
SouthWest = Texas / New Mexico / Mexico in what is today's American Southwest
Midwest = Not originally attractive to settlers, area was settled after the Northwest and Southwest
Oregon Trail
- Started in Independence Missouri, and went to Oregon.
-Traveled in Conestoga wagons
*1 out of every 10 people died
*It was long and treacherous, but land made it attractive to farmers
-Stretched for 2,000 miles from Missouri to Oregon.
- 50,000 people moved westward, causing the west coast to develop into states faster than the Midwest
Santa Fe Trail
- Becomes a busy trade route.
- Went from St. Louis Missouri to Santa New Mexico (which was part of Mexico in the 1820s)
-Traders formed wagon trains to trade and settle with Mexico
-From Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. This stretched for 800 miles and brought some of the first settlers westward
Reasons People Moved West
- They were traders like fur traders, missionaries to spread their religion, and farming
- In 1848 and 1849, thousands moved to California in search of Gold. This gave California a population large enough and quickly enough to apply in 1850
Missouri Compromise of 1820
-A compromise over slavery that occurred when Missouri joined the US in 1820
- Stated that Missouri would be added as a slave state, Maine would be added as a free state to balance out the senate.
- No states above Missouri's southern border could use slavery
Mexican/American War
- Mexico and the United States went to war over control of the State of Texas
- Texas declared it's independence as a nation in 1836, but Mexico did not accept it. Texas fought a war and won it's independence
- Almost 10 years later, James K Polk runs for office in 1844 saying he wants to annex Texas and make it a US state. Mexico did not agree with this.
- When Polk annexed Texas and sent American troops to the border to secure it, war broke out
- The US would go on to win the war, gaining Texas, California, and all of the American southwest after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1846
How western expansion led to debates over slavery
-They struggled to decide if slavery should be allowed in the new lands
- Could Upsets the North's balance of power in the Senate, or the South
Economy / Culture of North vs. South
-The South relied on slavery because they had more plantations and farming
-The Northern economy was based around manufacturing and factory work that relied on immigrants to work factory jobs
Compromise of 1850
-Debate over california as to whether it would be a slave state or a free state, it becomes a free state and slave trade is banned in washington dc
-South made laws to make slaves be returned called "Fugitive Slave Laws" and the decision to allow future western lands to decide for themselves if they wanted slavery
Kansas / Nebraska Act of 1854
-Illinois Congressman Stephen Douglas wanted a transcontinental railroad.
-The Kansas Nebraska formed those areas into territories, but led to conflict and violence when it was decided that these territories could decide for themselves if they wanted slavery
-This repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Bleeding Kansas
-After the kansas/nebraska act, people on different sides of the slavery argument moved to Kansas to vote and influence the new territory
-36 of 39 Kansas Legislators elected to territorial government support slavery.
-Results were not accepted, leading to violence and war between militias in support of and against slavery in 1857
Dred Scott Decision of 1857
-The supreme court ruled slaves property and that black slaves are not citizens of the US
- This ruling makes it almost impossible to solve the problem of slavery through law and the courts
- Dred Scott was a slave who had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin..
-He was a slave who lived in Illinois and Wisconsin, but moved to Missouri, then sued his owner and told him he should be free under the laws of the North.
John Brown (Actions / Raid on Harpers Ferry)
-He was a radical abolitionist who was driven out of Kansas after Murdering 5 pro-slavery supporters
-He organizes supporters to attack Harpers Ferry, in Virginia in attempt to start a slave rebellion.
-His failed attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia flares up national debates over slavery.
Election of 1860 (Results and Consequences)
-Abraham Lincoln won. Lincoln and Douglas both did not win any southern states.
-As a result of an anti-slavery president being elected, South Carolina quickly succeeds from the Union. They are then joined by 7 other southern states to form the Confederate States of America
Firing on Fort Sumter 1861
With the South claiming to be independent, they also claim all Federal property as their own
-In April of 1861, the Civil War began here when South Carolina militiamen opened fire on the Federal Based in Charleston Harbour after claiming the base as their own
Advantages and Strategies of the North
- North had 18.5 Million residents (South had little under 6 million)
- Union has more farmland and food
- 20,000 miles of Railroad connects the North
- North has 90% of all factories and plants in the nation
- Strategy is to seize the Mississippi River in the West to cut the confederacy in half, then take control of Richmond in the east and force the South to surrender
Advantages and Strategies of the South
- South only has to defend its land, it does not have to attack its enemy
- The South has MUCH better generals early in the war
- The South is highly motivated to fight, as they feel they are protecting their homelands and way of life
- Strategy is to hold out and win enough battles to get recognition of their "country" from Great Britain or France
The War in the West and its Goals
- Head Union General is Ulysses S. Grant and William Sherman, goal is to capture and control the Mississippi and New Orleans
The War in the East and its Goals
- Head Union General is George McClellan (but this changes repeatedly), goal is to march to Richmond and seize the city, then force the South to surrender
Emancipation Proclamation
- Liberated all slaves in the confederacy on June 1st, 1863
- Passed by Lincoln to make the war about slavery to block England from recognizing the south, but also to add troops to his military and make southern slaves sympathetic to the North
-The beginning of the end of slavery in the US
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point battle in the North that puts the Confederate army on the retreat
Battle of Vicksburg
- Turning point battle in the west that gave the Union full control of the Mississippi river
The Gettysburg Address
-Famous speech given by Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg in 1863 to honor the dead
-Seen as a statement of our nation's purpose and frames the war as a war that is testing whether or not democracy really can work and men really are equal
"Total War" and Sherman's March to the Sea
-Late in the War, William Sherman drives his military in from the west and cuts a swath through the south all the way to Savannah Georgia.
-Total War means trying to demoralize the enemy by destroying homes and food supplies and roads and bridges and forcing them to surrender
The Results of the War / It's Effect on the US
- A Union Victory brought the south back into the US and re-united the country
- Slavery is quickly abolished with the passing of the 13th amendment in 1865
- The 14th amendment makes former slaves citizens
- The 15th amendment gives blacks and former slaves the right to vote
- Abraham Lincoln is assassinated in 1865 by a man attempting to re-inspire the Confederacy
Abraham Lincoln
- Republican President elected in 1860 that guided the US through the Civil War and helped the western territories expand
13th Amendment
-Outlawed slavery in 1865
14th Amendment
-Made all citizens of people who were born or naturalized in the United States in 1868
15th Amendment
-Gave free black men the right to vote in 1870