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20 terms

Chapter 5 Vocabulary Amy Copley

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Passive Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy.
Diffusion
Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
Concentration Gradient
The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance.
Equilibrium
When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Hypotonic
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell.
Hypertonic
When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
Isotonic
When the concentration of two solutions is the same.
Contractile Vacuoles
Organelles that remove water.
Turgor Pressure
The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall.
Plasmolysis
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
Cytolysis
The bursting of cells.
Facilitated Diffusion
The transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins.
Carrier Proteins
A protein that transports substances across a cell membrane.
Ion Channels
Another type of passive transport that involves membrane proteins.
Vesicle
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.
Pinocytosis
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food.
Phagocytes
Cells that use phagocytosis to engulf foreign organisms.
Exocytosis
The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane.