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AP Human Geography: Agriculture and Rural Land Use
Terms in this set (66)
relating to cultivated land or the cultivation of land.
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Before agriculture, people obtained food by hunting and gathering. Agriculture was discovered through a combination of accidents and deliberate experimentation.
Split into commercial agriculture and subsistence agriculture. Commercial is found more in MDCs and subsistence is found more in LDCs.
the rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food.
the use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes.
form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods; a process requiring very little human labor.
Geographer from the University of California who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Also introduced the distinction between seed and vegetative planting.
the seeds that come from grasses such as wheat, millet, rice, barley, oats, rye, triticale, sorghum, and maize.
a jointly operated amalgamation of several small farms, especially one owned by the government.
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
a process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities, and finally, distribute them to consumers.
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
the business of producing, storing, and distributing milk and its products.
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
to adapt or tame so as to be cultivated by and beneficial to human.
harvesting twice a year from the same field.
extracts or harvest products from the earth, production of raw material/basic foods.
manufacturing finished goods.
service industry; provides services to the general population and to businesses.
consists of intellectual activities.
branch of quaternary; highest levels of decision making in a society or economy
an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit of land.
an area or building where livestock are fed and fattened up.
where the planned cultivation of seed crops began; because of seed selection, plants got bigger over time; generated a surplus of wheat and barley; first integration of plant growing and animal raising
First Agricultural Revolution
South and Southeast Asia, early domestication of root crops up to 14,000 years ago; Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent), early domestication of seed crops about 10,000 BCE
Genetically Modified Organisms
organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination.
Green Revolution/Third Agricultural Revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Hearths of Domestication
the areas that plants and animals were originally used for agriculture and agricultural origins are where the techniques of agriculture came from originally.
the process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain; staying within your own economic sector.
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Labor Intensive Agriculture
agriculture requiring a great deal of labor.
the breeding, and raising of animals, these animals are usually used for meat purposes and raised in large herds.
high-priced, relatively rare crops which are inessential to human survival.
Market Gardening (Truck Farming)
the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants.
the type found in the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea which have mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, and also in those areas elsewhere with a similar climate - central and southern California, central Chile, the south west of Cape Province, the south west of Western Australia ...
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
crops are not directly consumed by humans, they are consumed by livestock.
a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people.
the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making possible an increasingly larger population.
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.
a substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation.
a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility.
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Planned Agricultural Economy
an agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
farming for the raising of livestock (particularly cattle).
the accumulation of soluble salts of sodium, magnesium and calcium in soil to the extent that soil fertility is severely reduced.
a flooded field for growing rice.
Second Agricultural Revolution
a series of innovations, improvements, and techniques used to improve the output of agricultural surpluses (started before Industrial Revolution).
reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
the wearing away of a field's topsoil by the natural physical forces of water and wind or through forces associated with farming activities such as tillage.
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
loss of the thin, rich layer of soil where most nutrients for plants are found through erosion.
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
commercial gardening and fruit-farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or "exchange of commodities"
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies; moving from one economic sector to another.
Von Thunen's Model of Agriculture
a model of land use that showed how market processes could determine how land in different locations would be.
rice planted on dryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
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