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WHAP Exam Review
Terms in this set (101)
men hunted; women and children cared for homes and picked crops; foragers=people who supported themselves; nomadic; small group.
small group of hunter-gatherers that move around with animals; moved southward because sahara desert; almost as mobile as foragers; helped trade; grazing animals.
farms; domestication of animals; men worked more because they have more strength; inequality; permanent homes.
elements of civilization
government; art/architecture; religion; public works; writing; job specialization; social classes; political; economics; technologies; traits.
first civilization; had ziggurats; cuneiform; in mesopotamia which is between tigris and euphrates; astronomy=city states; agriculture; priest; bureaucrats; patron gods; old testament; unpredictable floods.
pyramids; isolation; buried people with food and sometimes servants; fancy tombs; pharaoh; mummy; nile river; floods; monarch; animism; polytheism.
indus river society
along Indus; fertile farmland; food surplus; indian; abandoned; disappears.
american empire; jaguar god; faces on rocks; calendar; early; mexico; polytheism; river valley civilization; farming.
architecture; mesopotamia; stepped tower made of mud; religious purposes; big.
writings; symbols; mesopotamia; sumerian/ akkadian/ western asia; sumer and egypt.
code of hammurabi
"eye for an eye"; polished black stone pillar; set of examples; harsh punishment; put in public spaces.
religion; purity; similar to christianity/ judaism; light/dark; good vs. evil; iran; persian; monothesitics; heaven and hell.
"epic of gilgamesh"
first written down epic; sumer; cuneiform; reinforces polytheistic gods.
based on the old testament; hebrew writing; monotheism; patriarchy; abraham=founder; torah; precursor to christianity; yahweh.
reincarnation; polytheistic; patriarchy; sati for women; caste system; divine spirit in all living things; dharma.
meditation; reincarnation; lotis flower; elephants; tigers; gautama=founder; equality; nirvana; divine spirt in all living things; no gods; karma; four noble truths; fold path; buddha not a god.
not a real religion; relates to daoism; respects for superior; worship ancestors; accept yourself in the hierarchy; patriarchy; chinese; civil service exams; support classes.
light/ dark; ying-yang; divine spirit in all living things; equality; lao tzu=founder; harmony; peace; monks seclusion from secular.
jesus; bible; cross; monotheism; equality; god of love; Rome was christian; persecution.
three philosophers=socrates, plato, aristotle; math/ science academies; man is the measure of all things; genius.
belief that animals, trees, nature have spirits; shamans=priests; everything is holy.
alexander the great conquered them; invaded greece; east of turkey; from asia minor to indus valley; states riled by satraps; started the veil for women; zoroastrian.
first chinese empire; standardization(weights); ying-yang; great wall of china; aristocracy - end primogeniture.
chinese empire; large; trade along the silk road came after the qin dynasty was overthrown; classical empire; extended china; strong military; civil service exams.
road system(expanded trade); sea trade; rich kings; iron mining; india; conquered almost all of india; hindu; pottery.
second classical; major empire; india; ganges valley; hinduism; sea trade; weak military; negotiate with princes; universities.
phoenicians and colonies
long distance trade; set up an alphabet(phoenician alphabet); trade colonies.
poor agriculture; polis; split up becaue of geography; developed an alphabet; conquered by alexander.
alexander the great
aristotle tutored him; philip 2's (king of Macedonia) son; founded alexandria; allowed persian officials in power; overthrew the persian empire; united persia and greece and africa.
classical; split; republic then a monarch; aqueducts; arch; split into two empires because over populated; paul.
similar to the olmecs; developed central america; stair-step pyramids; theocracy; mesoamerica; calendar; city states; farming(corn); animism; human sacrifice.
civil service exam
chinese test to become a scholar gentry; move up in society if you pass.
end of silk road; hagia sophia; city that fell later becoming istanbul; holy wisdom church.
trade route; spread islam; spread buddhism; spread/traded goods; silk east to west.
indian ocean trade
luxury goods; african; indian; monsoons; not straight across.
ships; planks sewn together; triangular lateen sails.
language group; south africa; swahili coast; arabic mixed; moved because population spread=agriculture, iron tools, and language.
muslim chinese explorer; did voyages; ming dynasty; china's treasure fleet; dispensed silk, porcelain, etc; spread religion; gave gifs for trade; junks treasure fleet.
linguistically and cultural distinct; colonized islands in pacific; colonized hawaii, new zealand, marquesas and easter islands.
re-birth period of art/ literature; secular; light; perspective; realistic people.
government, social and economic systems; king, lords, vassals, serfs; weak government; lord to vassal; characterized by legal and military service; land/ fief held by lord.
land/ fief held; lord held serfs to work on manors; large, self-sufficient; fear of vikings made farmers go to the lords who had extreme power over serfs.
buddhist; indian; christians; building where monks/ nuns live; maintain literacy; the rule of benedict; copied books/ manoscripts.
african trade route; slavery between arabs, asia, africa, and europe; spread language/ religion; spread islam; camels; salt.
empire created by indigenous muslims; trans - saharan gold trade; western sudan; mansa musa; center of learning; timbuktu; universities.
capital of the aztec empire; island; canals.
roman catholic/ eastern orthodox churches
started wars; influence government; powerful; under the pope; corruption.
caravans and camel saddles
trans - saharan trade; camel saddle for trade; men sat on the humps for higher ground (in battle); salt, kola nuts, and oil.
cities work together; feudalism; merchant association in germany economy.
christianity; government monopolized trade for luxury goods; weak military; hagia sophia cathedral; constantinople; theocracy; architecture and luxuries.
first hereditary dynasty of muslim caliphs; ruled from spain to india; damascus; established dynastic cycle.
overthrew umayyad; capital of baghdad along tigris river; purchased turkic slaves; mamluks (turkic slaves) for army; central government; shi'ite muslims.
large; big military; silk road; trade; horses; bow and arrows; porcelain/ silk; after sui; gunpowder; foreigners; stern- patted rudder; compass; junk; great wall.
small; sea trade; compass; gunpowder; moveable type; neo- confucainism; little military; no more silk road; strong economy; foot-binding.
mongol dynasty(but not yuan)
representatives from powerful families who ratified decisions; silk road; yurts; khan=leader; warriors.
khubilai khan=founder; in china; mongol; cultural ideas; protected trade routes; confucian; reunited; beijing=capital; protected trade routes.
vikings/ scandinavian traders
threatened western europe; ships could go into rivers; traded to the east; raided to the west; versatile maneuverable/ strong ships.
city states; indian ocean trade; arabic, persian african (swahili); gold exports; ivory; wood; gold - africa; bantus.
moroccan; thirty year journey; influence of islam; he was a muslim scholar; joined mecca; converted people; spread islam; traveler.
neo - confucianism
chinese; anti-foreign; patriarchal; social class; song dynasty; rejected formed belief systems; few women's rights; footbinding.
islamic empire; many muslims take on hindu ideas; accepted buddhist and hindus as people of the book; ruled most of india; mosques; predominant religion- muslim; hindu buddhist population ruled; sea trade; no silk road.
four in total; jerusalem recaptured; learned to manufacture arabic goods; armed pilgrimages by christians to reclaim from muslims.
islam's effect on women's rights
seclusions; reduced legal rights; inheritance from brothers; some right but not enough.
american; in mexico; theocracy; polytheism; strong military; women valued; human sacrifice; tenochtitlan=capital.
peru; llama; thirteen thousand miles of roads; andes; polytheistic; animistic; american/ amerindian; controlled pacific coast of south america from ecuador to chile from its capital cuzco.
above ground fields; increase agricultural yields; helped transport waste to shores.
bubonic plague; smoke; built brick houses; london fire; diseases; europe; small pox; rats/ fleas; compare to silk road.
hundred years' war
evolution of weapons=bowmen, musketeers, artillery, cannons; end of feudalism; series of campaigns over the control of the throne of france/ english royal families; conflict between king and vassal.
boats; good for bad weather; small; upriver; lateen sails; cannons; travel through shallow coastal waters; spanish/ portuguese; exploration.
portuguese; henry the navigator; university; third son of kind of portugal; developed life to exploring; found research center at sagris; improvements of compass and astrolabe.
vasco de gama
portuguese; tried to get to india; broke islam monopoly and started indian ocean trade around the south tip of africa.
portuguese; led a spanish exploration; traveled the whole world; completed columbus's journey.
spanish explorer/ conquistador; conquered the aztecs; conquered the mayans; had advantages like swords, guns, european diseases.
conquered inkas; spanish conquistador/ explorer; conquest of peru.
charted trading companies
private investors who paid an annual fee to the government in exchange for a monopoly on in west indies; joint stock companies
dutch trade in japan
only europeans with japan; dutch studies; island of dejima; isolation; monopoly of trade.
flow of silver
inflation; spain, china; ottoman; came from peru; replaced china as largest silver producer; across atlantic/ pacific; buy asian spices, silks, and pottery.
england; sell more than buy; wealth measure in gold and silver; trade with the mother country and its colonies.
columbian exchange - food and disease
new crops; profit; america; corn; tomatoes; trade goods, ideas, and diseases from american; after columbus discovered america; windmills; pigs.
barbados; west indies; money; atlantic islands; dominated brazilian economies; amerindian/ african slaves.
connection with god through meditation; spread religion; preachers who spread islam through missionaries; expand umma; went to west africa and southwest asia.
martin luther; roman catholic; new churches; more tolerance; less pope power; religion reform movement=latin christian church=lutheran.
caused enlightenment; nicholas copernicus first started this with the belief that the sun was the center of church but te church/pope rejected him; also galileo was later rejected by protestants/ churches and was forced to recite his research saying it was wrong.
secular ideas; individualism; laws of society; started because of scientific revolution.
trans-atlantic slave trade
middle passage; gun- slave cycle; america-sugar -> europe-rum->africa-slaves->america.
trans-saharan slave trade
islam; women; children for muslims; not hereditary; domestic.
forced labor in americas by spanish; given a grant to pay tribute or work; stated by spanish in america; slavery till death.
work program from incas; forced 1/7 incan men to work; worked for 2-4 months; payed for work.
europeans born in the new world; non natives.
japan ruling emperor; daimyo; samurai; emperor with no power; shogun power.
christian boys go to turkic families to learn military, education, language and culture; ottoman empire; janissaries.
lazy government; groups of merchants/ private individuals; expanding bureaucracies; inflation; corruption; less money gathered; government sold right to collect taxes.
signification; covered much of india; indian ocean trade; trade with china; sunni muslim; akbar (hindu tolerance/ no sati); sunni muslim; indian ocean trade; sikhism.
large middle eastern empire; sunni muslim; silk road; sea trade; istanbul; strong military; trade; diverse.
russia (after the mongol rule)
peter the great; looked westward; ruled by tsar (monarch); capital originally in moscow then later changed to st. petersburg; eastern orthodox.
treaty of toredesilla; first global empire; six centuries; brazil; sugar; trade; african slaves.
governed by viceroys; reliant on forced labor=ecomienda; patriarchy; trade=silver, gold, sugar.
south east asian islands/ spice islands; nutmeg, cinnamon, clovers-> europe; east indies; luxury spices; asian countries; south africa; small population; mining.
spain/ portugal; christians; increase trade.
large number of free immigrants; indentured servants/ slaves; no colonial bureaucracy; trade; mercantilism; thirteen colonies; west indies.
little ice age
100 years; famine; agriculture; shorter growing seasons; population decline; destroyed crops; europe.
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