46 terms

8th Grade Social Studies STAAR Review 2017

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Jamestown
1607; first successful colony in North America
Declaration of Independence
1776; document stating that the 13 colonies were a free and independent nation
Constitutional Convention (Philidelphia Convention)
1787; gathering of state representatives to revise the Articles of Confederation
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union, also banned slavery in those areas
Louisiana Purchase
1803; vast territory between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, purchased from France in 1803
French and Indian War
1754-1763; a war that took place between England and France, both aided by Native American Allies, that led to the end of French power in North America
Treaty of Paris
1763; agreement between England and France that ended the French and Indian War
Articles of Confederation
1777; first American constitution that created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
Washington's Farewell Address
1796; Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier.
Missouri Compromise
(1820) an agreement proposed by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state and outlawed slavery in any territories or states north of 36°30´ latitude
Indian Removal Act
1830; forced removal of Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi
Nullification Crisis
1832; caused by act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal
Mexican War
1846; war over disputed territory between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River
Mexican Cession
1848; Mexican territory of California and New Mexico given to the U.S. under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Compromise of 1850
1850; agreement on slavery by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854; law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, giving popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
Mercantilism
Theory that a nation's economic strength came from protecting and increasing its home economy by keeping strict control over its colonial trade
Protective tariff
A tax on imported goods to protect a country's industry from foreign competition by making the foreign goods more expensive
Plantation System
Agricultural system in the South which relied on slave labor to work the large farms and estates
Slave trade
The first African slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619; by 1700 the Southern colonies had begun to rely on slave labor and the transatlantic slave trade developed and grew
19th Century Industrialization
Rapid growth was a result of the Industrial Revolution- the process by which machines replaced hand tools and steam and other new sources of power replaced human and animal power
19th Century Urbanization
Process of a population's shifting from farms to cities, especially as a result of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century
Free Enterprise
System in which the government plays a limited role in the economy
Abolitionist movement
Movement to end slavery in the United States and its territories
Steamboat
Robert Fulton and John Fitch used the steam engine to power boats; revolutionized travel in the West; carried passengers and gave farmers and merchants an inexpensive way to transport goods
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney to speed the process of cleaning cotton seeds from the fiber; increased the need for slaves
Magna Carta
1215; A British document that contains two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey laws, and citizens have basic rights
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619; Representative assembly in colonial Virginia
Mayflower Compact
1620; Agreement for governing the Plymouth colony, signed by the Pilgrims before they landed at Plymouth
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639; A plan of government in the Puritan colony in Conneticut; expanded the idea of representative government in the English colonies
English Bill of Rights
1689; Signed by monarchs William and Mary of England; document guaranteeing the rights of English citizens
Marbury vs Madison
established judicial review
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Established in Marbury v. Madison
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Representative Government
A system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them
The Great Awakening
The colonist gained a sense of independence because they challenged church beliefs, they felt unified because of a common religion,
The Enlightenment
Time period focused on reason and promoting new forms of government (Locke, Montesquieu); influenced the American Revolution
Taxation
The process of a government levying a charge on people or things (e.g. Stamp Act, Sugar Act).
No Taxation without Representation
reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong.
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Suffrage
The right to vote
Gadsden Purchase
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.