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Nursing Research Chapters 1, 2, 4, & 7
Terms in this set (63)
A principle that is accepted as being true based on logic or reason, without proof
Cause Probing Research
Research designed to illuminate the underlying causes of phenomena
Clinical Nursing Research
Research designed to generate knowledge to guide health care practice
Clinical nursing research typically begins with questions stemming from practice problems— problems you may have already encountered
Example of a Nursing Research Question
Does a 6-month program of aerobic exercise result in improvements in executive function, global cognition, and quality of life in community-dwelling elders with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease?
What are experiences of people who suffer from facial lipoatrophy with regard to the reconstructive treatments they receive?
What is Evidence Based Practice?
ECP broadly defined, is the use of the best evidence in making patient care decisions, and such evidence typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health care professionals
Nurse leaders recognize the need to base specific nursing decisions on evidence indicating that the decisions are clinically appropriate, cost-effective, and result in positive client outcomes
An alternative paradigm (also called naturalistic paradigm) to the positivist paradigm that holds that there are multiple interpretations of reality, and that the goal of research is to understand how individuals construct reality within their context; associated with qualitative research
Evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered directly or indirectly through the senses rather than through personal beliefs or hunches
The degree to which the research methods justify the inference that the findings are true for a broader group than study participants; in particular, the inference that the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population
A way of looking at natural phenomena that encompasses a set of philosophical assumptions and that guides one's approach to inquiry
The paradigm underlying the traditional scientific approach, which assumes that there is an orderly reality that can be objectively studied; often associated with quantitative research.
(constructivist paradigm): studies are heavily focused on understanding the human experience as it is lived, through the careful collection and analysis of qualitative materials that are narrative and subjective.
(positivism paradigm) researchers gather empirical evidence systematically, using formal instruments to collect needed information. Usually (but not always) the information is
The techniques used to structure a study and to gather and analyze information in a systematic fashion.
A set of orderly, systematic, controlled procedures for acquiring dependable, empirical—and typically quantitative—information; the methodologic approach associated with the positivist paradigm.
A rigorous synthesis of research findings on a particular research question, using systematic sampling and data collection procedures and a formal protocol.
Clinical Practice Guideline
give specific recommendations for evidence-based decision making. Guideline development typically involves the consensus of a group of researchers, experts, and clinicians. The use or adaptation of a clinical practice guideline is often an ideal focus for an EBP project.
An international organization that aims to facilitate well-informed decisions about health care by preparing systematic reviews of the effects of health care intervention
- keystone of the EBP movement
A ranked arrangement of the validity and dependability of evidence based on the rigor of the method that produced it; the traditional evidence hierarchy is appropriate primarily for cause-probing research, especially Therapy question.
The extent to which an innovation is amenable to implementation in a new setting, an assessment of which is often made in an evidence-based practice project.
A technique for quantitatively integrating the results of multiple studies addressing the same or a highly similar research question.
The grand narratives or interpretive translations produced from the integration or comparison of findings from qualitative studies.
A small scale version, or trial run, done in preparation for a major study or to assess feasibility
Once an evidence-based protocol or guideline has been developed and deemed worthy of implementation, the
EBP team can move forward with a pilot test of the innovation and an assessment of the outcomes prior to widespread adoption.
The use of some aspect of a study in an application unrelated to the original research
RU starts with a research-based innovation that gets evaluated for possible use in practice
A rigorous synthesis of research findings on a particular research question, using systematic sampling and data collection procedures and a formal protocol
Systematic reviews can involve either narrative approaches to integration (including metasynthesis of qualitative studies), or quantitative methods (meta-analysis) that integrate findings statistically.
Any influence that distorts the results of a study and undermines validity
The process of preventing those involved in a study (participants, intervention agents, or data collectors) from having information that could lead to a bias, e.g., knowledge of which treatment group a participant is in; also called masking.
A variable that is extraneous to the research question and that confounds understanding of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables; confounding variables can be controlled in the research design or through statistical procedures.
A criterion for evaluating integrity and quality in qualitative studies, referring to confidence in the truth of the data; analogous to internal validity in quantitative research.
A research critique is an objective assessment of a study's strengths and limitations. Critiques usually conclude with the reviewer's summary of the study's merits, recommendations regarding the value of the evidence, and suggestions about improving the study or the report.
The results of the analysis of research data.
The organization of a research report into four main sections: the Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion sections.
In research, a conclusion drawn from the study evidence, taking into account the methods used to generate that evidence.
A report appearing in professional journals such as Research in Nursing & Health.
Level of Significance
The risk of making a Type I error in a statistical analysis, established by the researcher beforehand (e.g., the .05 level).
In statistical testing, the probability that the obtained results are due to chance alone: the probability of a Type I error.
A sham or pseudointervention, often used as a control group condition.
An important concept in quantitative research, involving having certain features of the study established by chance rather than by design or personal preference.
In qualitative studies, critical self-reflection about one's own biases, preferences, and preconceptions.
The degree to which a measurement is free from measurement error-its accuracy and consistency.
The process of holding constant confounding influences on the dependent variable (the outcome) under study.
The degree to which a study is methodologically and conceptually sound.
A term indicating that the results from an analysis of sample data are unlikely to have been caused by chance, at a specified level of probability.
An analytic tool that estimates the probability that obtained results from a sample reflect true population values.
The extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings or groups; analogous to generalizability.
The use of multiple methods to collect and interpret data about a phenomenon, so as to converge on an accurate representation of reality.
The degree of confidence qualitative researchers have in their data and analyses, assessed using the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, and authenticity.
A quality criterion referring to the degree to which inferences made in a study are accurate and well-founded; in measurement, the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
accessed by computer, often through software made available by commercial vendors.
Electronic database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
An important term used to search for references on a topic in a bibliographic database.
A critical summary of research on a topic, often prepared to put a research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence.
Electronic database, Medical Literature On-Line. Developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine
First-hand reports of facts or findings; in research, the original report prepared by the investigator who conducted the study.
Website used to access MEDLINE database through the U.S. National Library of Medicine
Second-hand accounts of events or facts; in research, a description of a study prepared by someone other than the original researcher.
List the 5 Basic Steps of Evidence Based Practice
1. Asking an answerable clinical question
2. Searching for relevant research-based evidence
3. Appraising and synthesizing the evidence
4. Integrating evidence with other factors
5. Assessing effectiveness
Identification Research Questions
- What is this phenomenon?
- What is its name?
Descriptive Research Questions
How prevalent is the phenomenon?
How often does it occur?
What are the dimensions or characteristics of the phenomenon?
What is important about it?
Exploratory Research Questions
What factors are related
What are the antecedents
What is the full nature
What is really going on here
Prediction and Control Research Questions
If X occurs, will Y follow?
Can the phenomenon be prevented or controlled
Explanation Research Questions
What is the underlying cause? Does the theory explain the phenomenon?
Why does the phenomenon exist?
What does it mean?
How did it occur?
List the 4 Sections of a Research Article
1. Introduction - acquaints readers with the research problem and its context
2. Methods - describes the methods used to answer the research questions
3. Results - presents the findings that were obtained by analyzing the study data
4. Discussion - researcher presents conclusion about the meaning and implications of the findings
What are the components of a problem statement?
1. Problem identification: What is wrong with the current situation?
2. Background: What is the nature of the problem, or the context of the situation, that
readers need to understand?
3. Scope of the problem: How big a problem is it, and how many people are affected?
4. Consequences of the problem: What is the cost of not fixing the problem?
5. Knowledge gaps: What information about the problem is lacking?
6. Proposed solution: How will the new study contribute to the solution of the problem?
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