Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
1L Criminal Law
Terms in this set (99)
The Corpus Delicti
Body of the crime, meaning the prima facie case or elements of the crime. Generally, the term embodies both the obvious evidence of a crime and the logical conclusion based upon that evidence that the elements of a crime have been committed, for example, a dead body with a knife sticking out and the logical conclusion that a homicide has been committed.
A guilty (prohibited) act.
Malum In Se
"Evil in itself" or "inherently evil."
Something made wrong by legislation
In most jurisdictions, is a crime that is punishable by death or by a sentence of more than one year even though the sentence actually imposed is one year or less. However, in some states, a crime is a felony if the sentence is to be served in a state prison, as opposed to a county or city jail.
A crime of lesser gravity than a felony, punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment in a county jail
When all the elements of one crime are included within the elements of another crime, the lesser crime merges with the greater and a defendant cannot be convicted of both crimes. For example, larceny merges with robbery and battery merges with murder.
Additionally, the Merger Rule applies to solicitation and attempt, to prevent a person from being convicted of either of these and of the completed target crime.
The "guilty mind" or wrongful intent
Refers to the requirement that the actus reus and mens rea exist at the same time.
Under common law, refers to the purposeful commission of a prohibited act where the performance of the act is sufficient to establish intent to commit the crime because intent is inferred from the fact that the act was done. Examples of general intent crimes are battery and rape.
Refers to the purposeful commission of a prohibited act with the aim of producing a particular result. Examples of specific intent crimes are burglary and larceny: for burglary, the specific intent to commit a felony within the dwelling house of another is required to constitute the crime (under common law); for larceny, the specific intent to permanently deprive the owner is required.
Transferred Intent Doctrine:
Is applicable when a defendant, while in the process of committing a crime against one person, unintentionally commits the crime against a different person or commits a different crime. In such a case, the defendant's wrongful intent is transferred to include the unintended victim or crime. The Transferred Intent doctrine applies only to general intent crimes
Intent under the Model Penal Code
Under the MPC, the distinction between general and specific intent has been abandoned, and a person is generally guilty of an offense only if he acted purposefully, knowingly, recklessly or negligently, as the law for a particular crime may require, with respect to each material element of the offense.
Intent for Inchoate Crimes
Even if the target crime is a general intent crime, the inchoate version will be a specific intent crime (the specific intent to commit the target crime.)
Proof that the defendant's act is the actual and proximate cause of harm is required in order to establish that a defendant should be found guilty of a crime that includes a harmful result.
Is the cause which starts, ignites or makes possible the result which follows, and which satisfies the "But For" or Substantial Factor Test
"But For" Test
- "Causation" - a relationship between the breach and the injur, this test is used to establish actual cause in criminal cases which include a harmful result as an element of the crime. To apply the test, the state must show that "but for" the defendant's act, the harm would not have occurred.
Substantial Factor Test
Used to establish actual cause where more than one act contributes to the harm. The defendant is said to be an actual cause of the harm if the defendant's act is a substantial factor in bringing the harm about. This means that the defendant's act contributed to more than a trivial degree to the resulting harm.
Foreseeable - In criminal law, an actual cause of harm is also the _____ if the act is closely connected enough to the resulting harm that it is fair to hold the defendant responsible for causing the harm. Under the Model Penal Code, this means that the resulting harm is not "too remote or accidental" from the defendant's act to make it unfair to hold him responsible
Principal in the First Degree
Under common law, is one who personally performs the actus reus of the crime.
Principal in the Second Degree
Under the common law, is one who does not personally perform any actus reus of the crime, but who is actually or constructively present and who aids and abets in the commission of the crime.
Modernly, most jurisdictions have abandoned the common law title of "principal in the first degree" and refer to the person who commits the actus reus of the crime simply as a ?
Is presence that is legally imputed to one who, while not physically present during an act, is so situated as to give assistance to the perpetrator. For example, a lookout or the driver of a getaway car during a robbery is constructively present at the crime.
Aid and Abet
Means to knowingly or intentionally assist in or facilitate the commission of a crime.
Accessory before the Fact
Counsels, commands, encourages or assists prior to the actus reus of the crime and is not present during the commission of the crime.
Accessory after the Fact
One who was not present during the commission of the crime, but who provides aid with knowledge that the crime was committed, for example, by aiding the felon in avoiding arrest, conviction or punishment.
Modernly, most jurisdictions have abandoned t e common law titles of "principal in the second degree" and "accessory before the fact," and refer to one who intentionally and knowingly participates or assists in the commission of a crime as an ? In the minority of jurisdictions which still use the term "accessory before the fact," ? is one who participates or assists in a crime and who is present during the crime.
Under the theory of this, accomplices are guilty of the target crime and, in most jurisdictions, are also guilty of all acts by all accomplices or principals which are in furtherance of the target crime and all additional crimes which are a natural or probable consequence of the target crime.
Misprision of a Felony
Under common law, is the nondisclosure of the known felony of another. However, modernly it is the concealment of a known felony of another.
Compounding the Crime
Involves the acceptance of anything of value under an unlawful agreement not to prosecute a known offender, or to limit or to otherwise hinder the prosecution of his case.
Partly or imperfectly formed, or incomplete.
Occurs when one counsels, incites, solicits, or requests another to commit an unlawful act.
Occurs when criminal intent becomes accompanied by an act which comes within close proximity of committing a crime.
Results when two or more persons agree together to accomplish a criminal or unlawful act or to do a lawful act by criminal or unlawful means.
Each member of a conspiracy can be charged with crimes committed by co-conspirators if those crimes were committed in furtherance of the target crime or if they were a natural and probable consequence of the target crime.
When a crime requires the participation of more than one person, (e.g., dueling, bribery, etc.) the perpetrators cannot be charged with conspiracy. However, if there are more perpetrators than the crime, by definition, logically requires, then conspiracy can be charged.
Is the intentional, harmful or offensive touching of another person.
Is the intentional threatening of another with battery and the creating of reasonable apprehension of immediate bodily harm in the victim. Additionally, in criminal law, an assault is an attempted but failed battery regardless of whether the intended victim was aware of the attempt.
Is sexual intercourse with a woman without her consent.
Is sexual intercourse with a willing female under the age of consent.
Term used generically to cover what the common law or state legislatures regard as seriously "deviate" or "unnatural" sexual practices.
Is the malicious maiming or disfiguring of another.
Is the intentional confinement of another person against his will.
Is the movement of a person against his will from one place to another.
Is the killing of one human being by another human being
Is a homicide committed with malice aforethought.
Is the mens rea required for murder. It exists when the defendant has a "man endangering state of mind" as evidenced by one of the following intentions:
1) an intent to kill as expressed by the defendant;
2) an intent to cause serious bodily harm as implied by the defendant's actions;
3) a wanton and willful disregard of human life (depraved or malignant heart) as implied by the defendant's actions; or
4) an intent to commit a dangerous felony as implied by the defendant's actions.
First Degree Murder
Murder committed by poison; torture; lying in wait; or other willful, deliberate and premeditated means; or murder that results from application of the Felony Murder Rule.
Occurs when a person inflicts great bodily injury on another with intent to cause cruel or extreme pain and suffering for the purpose of revenge, extortion, persuasion, or for any sadistic purpose.
Felony Murder Rule
If a death occurs during the attempt or commission of a serious felony, is causally related to that felony, and is not a lesser included offense, then the felon can be charged with first degree murder.
Second Degree Murder
Is all murders which are not first degree murder, in other words, those homicides committed with malice aforethought but which do not meet the requirements for murder in the first degree.
Is a murder which, because of mitigating circumstances, is treated as less heinous than first or second degree murder.
Heat of Passion
Is one mitigating factor that can reduce a murder charge to voluntary manslaughter, if the defendant can prove the following elements:
1) adequate provocation to lead a reasonable person to lose his normal self-control,
2) the defendant actually lost his self-control, and
3) there was not enough time for the defendant to cool off between the provocation and the murder.
Is an unintentional homicide committed without malice but under circumstances involving either gross negligence or the commission of a crime not covered by the Felony Murder Rule.
Is the breaking and entering of the dwelling house of another in the nighttime with the intent to commit a felony therein.
Is an unlawful entry into a structure or vehicle with the intent to commit or felony or theft, including petty theft, once inside.
Is the malicious burning of the dwelling house of another.
Is the malicious burning of any structure.
Is the trespassory taking and carrying away of the personal property of another with intent to permanently deprive the owner thereof.
Larceny by Trick
Is a form of larceny in which the taking of the personal property of another was done with the owner's consent; however, the consent was obtained by deceit or fraud.
Obtaining Property by False Pretenses
Is the obtaining of title to the property of another through a false representation of fact with the intent to defraud.
Is the fraudulent taking of the personal property of another by one to whom possession has been entrusted.
Is larceny from the person of another by use of violence, force, intimidation, or threat of immediate harm.
Is the unlawful obtaining of property from another through coercion, usually involving a threat to perform an illegal act in the future. In some states, the term "extortion" applies to one acting in an official capacity or under color of office, while "blackmail" applies to any person.
In most states, is the same as extortion. However, in some states, extortion applies to those acting under color of office, while blackmail applies to any person obtaining property through coercion. In other states, blackmail applies to coercion through a threat to reveal information where such revelation would not be criminal in itself, but is only criminal because of the use of the threat to coerce the giving of property.
Is the corrupt payment or receipt of an advantage or anything of value with an intent to influence a person's action, vote, or opinion, in any public or official capacity.
Is the false making or material alteration of any writing of legal significance with the intent to defraud.
Is the use of a forged instrument, knowing that it is forged, with the intent to defraud.
Receiving Stolen Property
Is the acquisition of stolen property with knowledge at the time of receipt that it was stolen, when done with intent to deprive the owner of his or her property.
Is the making of a false oath or affirmation in a judicial proceeding in regard to a material matter.
Subornation of Perjury
Is the procurement of perjury from another.
Is an attempt by corrupt and wrongful means to influence a juror in regard to the jury's verdict.
Breach of Peace
Is a willful act which unreasonably disturbs the public peace.
Is a meeting of three or more people with a common plan to commit an unlawful act or a lawful act in a manner likely to cause a breach of peace.
The movement of unlawful assemblers for the purpose of carrying out the common design.
A tumultuous breach of peace by three or more persons acting together to commit a crime by open force or to carry out any common enterprise.
A mutual fight in a public place.
A child under the age of 7 does not have the capacity to commit a crime, there is a rebuttable presumption that a child aged 7 to 14 does not have the capacity to commit a crime, and a child over the age of 14 has the same capacity to commit a crime that an adult has.
Someone who is sleep walking, does not have the capacity to commit a crime.
On alcohol or drugs as a result of force, fraud, medical prescription, reasonable mistake, allergic reaction, or the like, then his or her actions are excused to the same extent as they would be if those actions were the result of a mental disorder.
A defendant who is intentionally intoxicated will be excused for his or her actions only if the intoxication has developed into a permanent mental disorder. However, this may mitigate the degree or severity of the crime or charge if, due to the intoxication, the requisite criminal intent is lacking.
The M'Naghten Rule
A defendant is entitled to the defense of insanity if he suffers from a mental disease of the mind and does not know what he is doing or does not know that what he is doing is wrong. Also, a defendant is entitled to the defense of insanity if he suffers from an insane delusion and if the notion embodied in the delusion and believed to be a fact would excuse the defendant had the notion been true.
The product of a mental disorder in which the defendant has a false belief in something that would be incredible to others and that belief remains persistent despite proof to the contrary.
The Irresistible Impulse Test
A defendant is entitled to the defense of insanity if, because of a mental disorder, he knows that he is doing wrong but cannot control his behavior.
The Substantial Capacity Test
A defendant is entitled to the defense of insanity if at the time of his conduct, as a result of a mental disease or defect, he lacks substantial capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of his conduct or the capacity to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law.
The Durham Rule
A defendant is entitled to the defense of insanity if, because of a mental disease or defect, he committed an unlawful act.
The Diminished Capacity Test
Evidence of mental infirmity not amounting to insanity is admissible and should be considered on questions of premeditation, deliberation, and malice, although diminished capacity is not a complete defense.
Defense of Self-Defense
A person who reasonably believes himself to be threatened with immediate bodily harm may use whatever degree of force is apparently necessary to protect himself.
If the attack is with so-called "deadly force" the majority rule is that the one attacked may defend with "deadly force" if deemed reasonable under the circumstances. The minority rule requires that the one attacked retreat if there is a safe means of doing so, unless the victim of the attack is in his "castle" (i.e., home).
Defense of Defense of Others
A person who reasonably believes another to be threatened with immediate bodily harm may use whatever degree of force is apparently necessary to protect the personal safety of the other person.
Step-In-Shoes Jurisdiction (Defense of Others)
In some jurisdictions a person is not allowed to use the this defense unless the person being defended was not the aggressor and had the right to use self-defense.
Reasonable Appearances Jurisdictions (Defense of Others)
In other jurisdictions, a person defending another in good faith and in ignorance of the fact that the person being defended is the aggressor and not entitled to use self-defense is nevertheless justified when acting upon reasonable appearances. Sometimes it is further required that the person being defended is one whom the defender is authorized by statute to protect.
Defense of Defense of Property
A person may use reasonable force that is not likely to cause death or serious bodily harm to protect his or her possession of real or personal property against an apparent trespasser.
Defense of Prevention of Crime
A person, whether a police officer or private person, may use reasonable force to prevent the commission of a crime which is apparently being attempted in his or her presence.
Defense of Legal Authority
A person may commit an otherwise criminal act if it is done under legal process or is otherwise authorized by law.
Defense of Necessity
A person may commit an otherwise criminal act if that person is acting in an emergency situation to protect himself or others from a threatened injury to person or property. The person claiming the defense of necessity may act on appearances. A reasonable mistake is permitted.
Defense of Duress
A person may commit an otherwise criminal act if his act was the result of a reasonable fear of imminent death or serious bodily harm and if his fear was induced by a threat made by a third person. However, this defense will not apply to an intentional killing of another.
Defense of Entrapment
A person may not be convicted of a crime if a law enforcement officer (or an agent of an officer) solicited, induced or encouraged the person to commit the crime and if the person would not otherwise have committed it.
Defense of Mistake of Fact
Will disprove a criminal charge if it is honestly entertained, based upon reasonable grounds and is of such a nature that the conduct would have been lawful had the facts been as they were supposed to be.
Defense of Mistake of Law
Not a valid defense to a crime except in those rare instances where it negates an essential element of the crime. Therefore, the old saying "ignorance of the law is no excuse" is appropriate as a general rule.
Sets with similar terms
Criminal Law Dan
Criminal Law - Crime Flashcards
Criminal Law Rule Statements
Sets found in the same folder
Criminal Law 1L
1L Civil Procedure
Other sets by this creator
Civil Procedure Pt. 1 (other)
Civil Procedure I
Other Quizlet sets
Government Chapter One Test
Oceanography Exam 1
You choose to have your criminal case heard by a jury. What amendment have you used?
When applying a tourniquet, where and what do you write?
Miguel reprogrammed a cellular telephone so that the calls were improperly charged to another account. Which statute has he violated?
In 1901, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered the DNA typing in blood cells