Earth History Final Exam UNCP Chap. 12-19

Ediacaran Fauna (first abundant multicellular animals)
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 71
Terms in this set (71)
Devonian-Age of Fishes -Marine creatures evolved before freshwater creaturesFish Evolution-Armored, jawless fish evolved first -Then jawless fishPlacoderms-A member of an extinct group of fishlike vertebrates that had jaws and were enclosed in a tough outer armor. -DunkleosteusCartilaginous Fish-member of a group of fishes with flexible skeletons made entirely of cartilage -Sharks & RaysArthropods-Showed up in the Devionian -ScorpionsLobe-finned evolution-Panderichthys (lobe-finned) to Tiktaalik Rosaea (fish a pod) to Tetrapods (like Acanthostega) to Amphibians (Icthyostega)What is the oldest Amphibian?-IcthyostegaWhat did reptiles evolve from?-Labyrinthodont amphibiansWhy is the Amniotic egg important to reptiles?-This egg created a way for reptiles to remain on land completely, they no longer needed bodies of water to reproduce and nestPelycosaurs and Therapsids-Pelycosaurs evolve from early reptiles, and Therapsids evolve from Pelycosaurs like DimetrodonWhy is the fin on Pelycosaurs important?-it is believed that the fin acted as a way to collect heat since they were reptilesTherapsids-Gave way to mammals -Carboniferous periodT or F, Seedless nonvascular plants were the earliest land plants-True, things like moss and liverworts appeared on land first during the DevonianThe first vascular plants were seedless...why were seeds important?-Seeds allowed reproduction in times without water -It expanded the growth range and allowed the plants to survive droughtsAre seed ferns (a type of gymnosperm) extinct?-They are extinct, they disappeared in the Cretaceous periodWhy was the development of seeds, as in male and female cones of gymnosperm conifers, important?-Reproduction?Permian extinction-Largest mass extinction in history, as it wiped out about 90% of all marine invertebrates -Over 65% of land animals, 65% of amphibians and reptiles died tooWhat caused the Permian Extinction?-Flood Basalts in Siberia, CO2 increased and Global WarmingPangaea Breakup-200 Ma -Divides into Gondwana to the South and Laurasia to the NorthWas the sea level high during the Cretaceous? If so why?-Yes, Because of Ice-Sheets melting or global warmingWhat was the name of the Epi-Continental Sea during the Cretaceous?-Sundance SeaWhat famous features are found in eastern North America, that show evidence of stretching as Pangaea rifted apart?-Great Rift Vallys in North AmericaWhat is the name of the last Orogeny to build the modern Rockies? This orogeny also emplaced the Sierra Nevada Batholith.-Laramide OrogenyMesozoic Era-Age of reptiles -Age of dinosDid mammals and dinosaurs live together?-Yes, but humans did notWhy are Angiosperms important?-They are the most important food source for birds and mammalsMollusks in the Mesozoic:-Cephalopods (Nautiloids), Bivalve(Clams), and Gastropods (Snails or Slugs)Reptile to Dinosaur evolution:Stem Reptiles, to Archosuars, to Dinosaurs -two groups, Saurischia and Ornithischia (bird hipped) -Saurischia (lizard hipped, two groups, Sauropods and Therapods)Examples of Ornithischians, Sauropods, and Theropods-Ceratops, Setagosauria, Thyreophora -Apatosaurus, Dipolodocus -Microraptor, TRex, AllosaursCommon misconceptions about dinosaurs:-Dinosaurs could fly -A giant meteor killed them all -Dinos didn't have feathers -They dragged their tails on the ground -Evidence for endothermy in some thearpods-Their erect posture -Bone structureBird EvolutionTherapods to Archaeopteryx to BirdsMammal evolutionStem Reptiles to Therapsids to Cynodonts to MammalsFlying Reptiles-Pterosaurs, the rates of bone growth suggetc they were endothermicMarine ReptilesIcthyosaurs, Pleisiosaurs, and MosasaursWhat are humans out of the following: Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placentals-PlacentalMass Extinction 65 ma, who went extinct and why?-Dinosaurs, Flying Reptiles, Marine Reptiles, Ammoniods. -Meteorite Impact at Chixalub Yucatan Peninsula Mexico and the flood basalts in India!Cenozoic Era-Age of mammals -66 Ma to presentPleistocene1.8 MA to 10,000HoloceneThe current interglaciation period, extending from 10,000 years ago to the present on the geologic time scale.Glaciation during Pleistocene period-Gelasian -Calabrian -Ionian -TarantianWisconsinan Glaciationthe most recent glacial period of the Pleistocene, enduring about 100,000 years and giving way, beginning about 18,000 years ago, to the current interglacial, the HoloceneHow old is the San Andreas Fault?28 million years oldHow old are the Himalayas?about 45 million years oldLaramide OrogenyThe mountain-building event that lasted from about 80 Ma to 40 Ma, in western North America; in the United States, it formed the Rocky Mountains as a result of basement uplift and the warping of the younger overlying strata into large monoclines.Colorado Plateauuplift in Laramide Orogeny, Colorado River has carved The Grand Canyonisostatic reboundSlow process of Earths crust rising as the result of the removal of mass from the crust.What is the Chesapeake Bay?An estuaryWhat famous glacial lake busted through it's ice dam and created the "scablands" in Washington State?Glacial Lake ColumbiaHow did the Great Lakes form?by glacier basins filling with waterLong term climate fluctuation is influenced by what?-Sun energy, The continents positions, The tilt of the Earth's axisThree groups of mammalsmonotremes(egg-laying mammals, platypus), marsupials(Abdomen pouch to hold babies, Kangaroos), placental(humans)Northern MammalsCamels, Rhinos, horses, bovidesEarly horseMerychippusExtinct Carnivorous MammalSabre Toothed Tiger, Dire WolvesCenozoic Mega FaunaGiant mammals, Mammoths, Mastodons, Elephants, Giant Ground SlothsEarly aquatic Carnivores-Related to bears -KolponomosWhat is interesting about whales?They were originally land-dwelling, hoofed animalsWhere do we find good Cenozoic Fossils?Florida, and the La Brea Tar Pits...Pleistocene fauna!Who went extinct 14.500-10,000 years ago?-Mammoths, Mastodons, Dire Wolves, Giant Ground Sloths, Smilodon, -Extinct in North America...horses, camels, rhinos, hipposWhat are the two big hypotheses regarding why the Pleistocene extinction occurred?-Prehistoric overkill (humans caused it via hunting) -Climate change paired with the retreat of major ice caps or ice sheets