Organic Chemistry

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chemical bond
link formed by two electrons that binds atoms together; where the energy in a compound is stored
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate how acidic or basic a substance is; measures the concentration of H+ ions
acid
compound that release H+ ions in solution; pH less than 7
base
compound that releases OH- ions in solution; pH greater than 7
monomer
building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains
polymer
large molecule made up of smaller building blocks or monomers
carbohydrate
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; main source of energy for body, commonly end in "ose"
monosaccharide
building block of a carbohydrate; simple sugar
polysaccharide
large carbohydrate made up of monosaccharides, ex. starch and glycogen
lipid
huge molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and a little oxygen; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acid
with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids
glycerol
with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids
RNA
single stranded nucleic acid used for protein synthesis
DNA
double stranded nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information
protein
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; makes up cell/body structures and enzymes
nucleotide
building block or monomer of a nucleic acid; commonly recognized by its nitrogen bases as A, T, C, or G
amino acid
building block or monomer of a protein
nucleic acid
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous; involved in protein synthesis
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactant
chemical that enters a chemical reaction
product
chemical that results from a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy needed to start a reaction
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
specialized protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by decreasing activation energy; typically end in "ase"
substrate
reactant in a chemical reaction that happens in a living thing
denaturation
when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH
organic compound
compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen and is found in living things
starch
polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants
glycogen
compound used by animals to store carbohydrates in the liver and skeletal muscles
glucose
simple sugar that is used to make ATP through cellular respiration
cellulose
polysaccharide that is the main component of plant
hemoglobin
specialized protein that carries oxygen on red blood cells
insulin
protein hormone that helps to decrease blood sugar
cholesterol
specialized lipid that is used in cell membranes and making hormones