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chemistry semester test
Terms in this set (36)
Law of Conservation of Energy
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but is conserved
energy that is available to do work — the difference between the change in enthalpy and the product of the entropy change and the absolute temperature
The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution; occurs only where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other
A quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance. This point of maximum concentration, the saturation point, depends on the temperature of the liquid as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved.
contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution; has further capacity to hold more solute
contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution; aka molar concentration
the ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent; aka as molal concentration
The ratio of the moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of both solvent and solute
a physical property of a solution that depends on the number, but not identity, of the dissolved solute particles; example properties include vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure, and freezing point depression
heterogeneous mixture containing particles larger than solution particles but smaller than suspension particles that are categorized according to phases of their dispersed particles and dispersing mediums
A type of heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration
An emulsion is mixture of two liquids that would not normally mix. That is to say, a mixture of two immiscible liquids. By definition, an emulsion contains tiny particles of one liquid suspended in another. Chemically, they are colloids where both phases are liquids.
the energy-releasing process by which a substance changes from gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid
Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a body per unit of mass. In SI units, specific heat (symbol: c) is the amount of heat in joules required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 Kelvin. Also Known As: specific heat capacity, mass specific heat.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent
the state of being thick, sticky, and semi-fluid in consistency, due to internal friction
Heat, q, is thermal energy transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system that are in contact. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the system.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C.
1 calorie = 4.184 joules.
Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule. Dipole-dipole forces have strengths that range from 5 kJ to 20 kJ per mole. ... Polar molecules have a partial negative end and a partial positive end.
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
The Tyndall effect is the scattering of light as a light beam passes through a colloid. The individual suspension particles scatter and reflect light, making the beam visible. The amount of scattering depends on the frequency of the light and density of the particles.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... The value of the triple point of water is fixed by definition, rather than measured.
Osmosis (/ɒzˈmoʊ.sɪs/) is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
dispersion, in chemistry, mixture in which fine particles of one substance are scattered throughout another substance. A dispersion is classed as a suspension , colloid , or solution .
Diffusion is the process of a substance spreading out to evenly fill its container or environment. In a solution, a concentrated solute diffuses to spread evenly in its solvent. concentration to low concentration.
Brownian motion is the continuous random movement of small particles suspended in a fluid, which arise from collisions with the fluid molecules. First observed by the British botanist R. Brown (1773-1858) when studying pollen particles. The effect is also visible in particles of smoke suspended in a gas.
Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.
A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state. ... For cases involving an isolated system where no energy is exchanged with the surroundings, spontaneous processes are characterized by an increase in entropy.
This means that the change in enthalpy under such conditions is the heat absorbed or released by the system through a chemical reaction or by external heat transfer. Enthalpies for chemical substances at constant pressure usually refer to standard state: most commonly 1 bar pressure.
In chemistry, entropy is represented by the capital letter S, and it is a thermodynamic function that describes the randomness and disorder of molecules based on the number of different arrangements available to them in a given system or reaction
Law of Disorder
In the 2002 encyclopedia Encarta, for example, entropy is defined as a thermodynamic property which serves as a measure of how close a system is to equilibrium, as well as a measure of the disorder in the system.
Law of Entropy
The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy in an isolated system - the combination of a subsystem under study and its surroundings - increases during all spontaneous chemical and physical processes. ... Thermodynamic entropy is an extensive property, meaning that it scales with the size or extent of a system.
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