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SS Final (Study in Order/Don't shuffle)
Terms in this set (42)
Why was slavery a problem for the United States from the time of the Philadelphia Convention?
Slaveholding South threatened to walk away if institution was touched in any way
Compromises had to be made
How did the slavery problem intensify as the nation expanded?
Would slavery expand into new territories?
What role, if any, did federal government have in protecting slave institution and slaveholding interests?
What arguments did northerners make against slavery?
Stole land that could have been used by poor whites to achieve economic independence (Agrarian Nation)
How did each region respond to slavery and reinforce each side's position?
North gradually abolished slavery while South enacted stricter and harsher laws to enforce and protect it
Slaves tried running away in response
South became stricter and harsher; North became more and more outspoken and willing to help and undermine slavery
What role did slavery play in America's economy?
Entire southern economy predicated upon slavery
Many raw materials for northern industries came from slaveholding South
In short, American economy would collapse without a substitute for slavery
What did both the North and the South fear?
Opposing region controlled federal government and was actively undermining the other
In what way did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 confirm the antislavery nature of the Constitution and Founder's intent to allow slavery to die off naturally without its expansion into new territories?
Banned slavery north of Ohio River, indicating intention to allow slavery to gradually die off on its own (recall history was on side of Founders as slavery had never been self-perpetuating in history)
How was the Northwest Ordinance contravened and the intent of the Constitution undermined? As a result of this action, what became a new matter of national security?
With admittance of Vermont and Kentucky, precedent established to admit 2 states at once (1 free, 1 slave) to ensure balance
Became matter of national security to have equitable distribution of free and slave states
What was the Missouri Compromise and what was the context in which this compromise came about?
Missouri Territory largest section of LA Purchase
St. Louis burgeoning and bustling frontier trade city, but filled with powerful and influential slaveholders
When Missouri qualified for statehood, James Tallmadge of NY proposed legislation that would gradually abolished slavery in Missouri, which triggered outrage among southerners
Compromise brokered by Henry Clay
Maine would be admitted as free state
In exchange, Missouri would enter as slave state
Any state south and east would be slave
Any state north would be free
Why was the Missouri Compromise significant?
Exposed to public how divisive slavery issue had become
Compromise established precedent of band-aiding slavery problem rather addressing problem head-on
What was the significance of the Nullification Crisis?
Demonstrated how powerful slaveholding
South was and how far it would go to protect slave institution
Raised specter of secession for first time
The problem of slavery and resulting sectionalism was so bad, what had to implemented in Congress to maintain peace?
What broke the peace?
What was the Wilmot Proviso?
Congressman David Wilmot proposed legislation banning expansion of slavery into territories won from Mexico
Proviso had northern support and cleared House
What was the ruling of Prigg v. Pennsylvania?
Federal fugitive slave laws trumped Pennsylvania's personal liberty law
How did northern states respond?
Passing additional personal liberty laws to protest
Why was this ruling ironic given the position of the slaveholding South during the Nullification Crisis and what does it indicate as to the cause of the Civil War?
Until this point, South claimed states' rights to defend slavery
Now, they used federal power to undermine states' rights rights
Indicates Civil War was not about states' rights, but truly was about slavery
Who was Frederick Douglass and what made him a powerful voice for abolition?
Former slave who used his natural intellect and education he received to escape
His demonstrable intellect, brilliance as a writer and orator, and his experiences as a slave made him uniquely suited to speak for the abolition of slavery
What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850 and what was the context in which it was crafted?
Lands acquired from war with Mexico were seeking statehood
Provided tough new fugitive slave law (Fugitive Slave Act)
Empowered federal government to deputize citizens to arrest runaway slaves
New Mexico and Utah would determine for themselves whether to be free or slave states (popular sovereignty)
Territories could submit suits directly to Supreme Court over status of fugitive slaves
California admitted as free state
Slave trade banned in Washington, D.C. (but not full abolition)
What were the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act?
Created special new federal commissioners to determine fate of fugitives without jury trial or even court testimony
Forbid, by law, northern authorities or individuals from interfering with capture of slaves
Forced, by law, northerners in assisting with recapture of runaway slaves
What were the consequences of the act?
Blatant bid to perpetuate slavery and undermine Constitution
Massively increased federal power, policing power, and slaveholding power
Undermined state and local authority
Many black northerners fled to Canada in response
What was Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Highly influential antislavery novel and antislavery equivalent of Common Sense
Moved abolitionist and antislavery conversation into mainstream, everyday conversation
Forced Americans to confront ingrained racism built into American society from colonial period
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Bill designed to do?
Facilitate statehood of Kansas and Nebraska
What concern did opponents of slavery have about the bill?
Overturn Missouri Compromise
Open West to slavery
According to the bill, how would Kansas and Nebraska determine whether they would be free or slave states? What occurred as a result of this policy?
Mini-civil war prior to Civil War as hundreds (thousands?) of migrants flowed into territories to influence elections and violence broke out between antislavery and pro-slavery forces
How did opponents of slavery begin resisting the institution in the 1850s?
Began physically resisting those who tried to recapture runaway slaves
What did the Anthony Burns incident reveal about slavery and the state of the country?
Both sides playing for keeps and willing to do whatever was necessary to ensure they came out victorious
How did the new Republican Party distinguish itself from the Whig Party?
Consistent and uniform ideological platform
True antislavery party (although moderate about it - willing to save Union if it came down to choice between the two)
What did the Charles Sumner indicate about the issue of slavery and sectionalism?
Similar to Anthony Burns
Both sides willing to perform as they see fit, even in the seats of government, to ensure victory
Both sides believe themselves to be right
This is personal for both sides
Why did James Buchanan win the Election of 1856?
Americans feared a Republican victory would cause secession, so voted for Buchanan for no other reason than to preserve the Union, even if for just 4 more years
What was the response of black Americans to the Republican defeat in 1856?
Some decided to emigrate, thinking they would never be accepted as full citizens with equal rights
Others thought a radical and direct assault on slavery was needed
Why did Kansas's admittance as a slave state turn the problem of sectionalism into an all-out national crisis?
Voters elected free-state government
Federal government under James Buchanan ignored wishes of voters and recognized illegitimate pro-slavery Kansan government
What was the decision in Scott v. Sanford?
Scott had no right to sue in United States courts
Black Americans could not be citizens
On what ground was this decision reached?
Declaration's precept "all men are created equal" didn't apply to blacks
These decisions were directly influenced by Buchanan, who pushed to make "definitive" ruling on slavery and status of all blacks (free and slave)
Why was this decision such a sham and mockery?
Buchanan directly influenced Court's ruling
Before ruling even handed down,
Buchanan addressed American people and informed them they must "accept constitutional law as the Supreme Court interpreted it"
Buchanan's unconstitutional actions
Breaching separation of powers and checks and balance
Roger Taney and Supreme Court fiercely pro-slavery and allowed their biases to predetermine ruling rather than simply applying Constitution (eisegesis rather than exegesis)
Ruling abandoned antislavery intent of Constitution
What were the Lincoln-Douglas Debates?
1858 Illinois Senate race between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas that served as microcosm of slavery and sectionalism; all issues and problems running through country broiled down to single race between 2 men and 7 debates
These debates are equally lionized along with Federalists versus Antifederalists and Republicans as greatest debates in American history
What questions raised in these debates reshaped the national debates over slavery?
Would slavery expand into western territories
Would slavery insinuate itself into states where it was currently illegal
Did the founders intend the nation to be half slave and half free
Did one group of states possess the right to dictate to the other about morality
Why were these debates consequential for Abraham Lincoln?
Propelled him into national stratosphere and Republican presidential candidacy
Who was John Brown?
Used violence in efforts to end slavery
Involved in Bleeding Kansas, where he murdered pro-slavery forces for their attacks in Lawrence, Kansas
What was the incident at Harper's Ferry?
Brown led armed force to attack weapons arsenal to lead armed slave revolt
Attempt failed (ironically put down by Robert E. Lee)
Most of his men killed
Brown himself captured, tried, and executed
Which state was the first to secede from the Union? What triggered its secession?
Election of Lincoln to presidency
How did the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter both reveal the genius of Abraham Lincoln and solve the problem of how to respond to a state that seceded?
No one ever had an answer to the questions raised by secession: could a state secede and if so, what happened then?
Everyone, including Lincoln, was paralyzed about what to do once the dominoes of secession fell once South Carolina left
Lincoln demonstrated why he might be most brilliant (not best, but brilliant) of all presidents: realizing he didn't have definitive answer, Lincoln decided to force issue without it making look like he was forcing issue
Fort Sumter located in South Carolina, which obviously seceded, so Lincoln preemptively sent arms and supplies to the fort (before South Carolina officially seceded) to provoke South Carolina and Confederacy, but making Confederacy attack first and making them, officially, rebels
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