226 terms

5th grade Social Studies

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Wigwam
a small, domed home made of tree limbs and bark built by native groups of the northeast
Longhouse
large houses up to 100 feet in length usually made of elm bark
Tee pee
portable tents made of animal skins or birch bark and long, wooden support poles
Hogan
dark, gloomy structures made of tree bark and mud
The 3 sisters
corn, beans, and squash
Clans
family groups
Dugout
boats made from hollowed out logs
Barter
exchange goods
Confederation
a group of governments working together
Sachem
in charge of organizing trade alliances and protecting their villages
Pow wow
ceremony involving feasting, singing, and dancing.
Shaman
the spiritual leader who helped the sick and believed they could control spirits.
maize
corn
Algonquin and Iroquoian
the 2 languages spoken by the Eastern Woodland Native Americans
Basin
bowl-shaped area of land surrounded by higher land.
Bay
inlet of the sea or of some other body of water, usually smaller than a gulf
Canyon
deep, narrow valley with steep side
Cape
point of land that extends into water
Channel
deepest part of a body of water
Coastal plain
Area of flat land along a sea or ocean
Delta
triangle shaped area of land at the mouth of a river
Fall Line
area along which rivers form waterfalls or rapids as the rivers drop to lower land
Glacier
large ice mass that moves slowly down a mountain or across land
Gulf
part of a sea or ocean extending into the land, usually larger than a bay
Inlet
any area of water extending into the land from a larger body of water
Isthmus
narrow strip of land connecting two larger areas of land
Marsh
lowland with moist soil and tall grasses
Mesa
flat topped mountain with steep sides
Mountain pass
gap between mountains
Mountain range
chain of mountains
Mouth of river
place where a river empties into another body of water
Peninsula
land that is almost completely surrounded by water
Plain
area of flat or gently rolling low land
Plateau
area of high, mostly flat land
Savanna
area of grassland and scattered trees
Sea level
level of the surface of an ocean or a sea
Source of river
place where a river begins
Strait
narrow channel of water connecting two larger bodies of water
Swamp
area of low, wet land with trees
Tributary
stream of river that flows into a larger stream or river
Volcano
opening in Earth, often raised, through which lava, rock, ashes, and gases are forced out
Wigwam
a small, domed home made of tree limbs and bark built by native groups of the northeast
Longhouse
large houses up to 100 feet in length usually made of elm bark
Tee pee
portable tents made of animal skins or birch bark and long, wooden support poles
Hogan
dark, gloomy structures made of tree bark and mud
The 3 sisters
corn, beans, and squash
Clans
family groups
Dugout
boats made from hollowed out logs
Barter
exchange goods
Confederation
a group of governments working together
Sachem
in charge of organizing trade alliances and protecting their villages
Pow wow
ceremony involving feasting, singing, and dancing.
Shaman
the spiritual leader who helped the sick and believed they could control spirits.
maize
corn
Algonquin and Iroquoian
the 2 languages spoken by the Eastern Woodland Native Americans
Turquoise
An opaque, blue-to-green mineral found in the Southwest United States that is used to make jewelry
Beads
made of of shell, pearl, bone, teeth, and stone.
Pottery
involves shaping clay and then heating it at very high temperatures in order to harden it
Basket weaving
The materials greatly depended on the geographic location and to a lesser extent, the traditions of the tribe.
Totem poles
sculptures carved on poles made from huge trees
Kachina dolls
carved from wood and were painted with different colors and decorations.
Frame drum
also known as a Shaman drum
Pipes
used to seal a covenant or treaty.
Flutes
the third oldest known musical instrument in the world
Masks
regarded as living spirits.
The Indies
China, Japan and India
Expansion
the action of becoming larger
Explorer
A person who travels where no one has ever been to learn about them
Silk road
a trade route that went from China to Eastern Europe
Spice
a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Natural resources
something that is found in nature and can be used by people. Earth's natural resources include light, air, water, plants, animals, soil, stone,
Empire
an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress
Navigation
the science of getting ships, aircraft, or spacecraft from place to place
expedition
a trip taken with the goal of exploring
circumnavigate
sail or travel all the way around (something, especially the world)
conquistador
conquerors
missionaries
teachers of religion
Powahatan
Native American tribe that lived in the Eastern woodlands.
Helped the 1st settlers to Jamestown by trading w/ them and teaching them @ new crops.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America,
1607, first permanent English settlement, Virginia, John Smith, tobacco, cash crop, starving time
Plymouth
William Bradford
(New England Colony) It was founded in 1620 by Pilgrims for religious freedom.
William Bradford
Mayflower
1620
English ship that brought the first pilgrims across the Atlantic to Massachusetts
Mayflower Compact
1620. First Social Contract provided a basis for government at Plymouth. Foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
William Bradford
Leader of the Mayflower Pilgrims and Governor of the Plymouth colony.
Puritans
Protestants who wanted to reform the Church of England
New Amsterdam
Dutch colony, present day New York City
New France
Area of the Americas explored and claimed by France. Jacques Cartier claimed the area now known as Canada.
St. Augustine
Founded in 1565, it's the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in US territory
Colombian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
Group that traveled to America to gain religious freedom
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
The leader of Jamestown
Economic Immigrants
Usually indentured servants or farmers
Religious immigrants
Pilgrims, Puritans or any religious that came to America to practice their own religion
Forced immigrants
Anyone brought to America against their will, such as slaves.
Tobacco
An important crop that helped colonists make money
colony
A piece of land that is owned by another country. A group of people from a distant land who are ruled by the government of their native land
indentured servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
slave
a person who is the legal property of another and is forced to obey them. African slaves were used in the colonies.
Reasons for English to colonize North America?
*religious freedom
*political freedom
*economic opportunity
Name the New England Colonies:
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut
Name the Middle Colonies:
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, Delaware
Name the Southern Colonies:
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Georgia
Pilgrim
Religious group that fled England because of they wanted Religious freedom. They were persecuted because of their different religious beliefs.
Plymouth
settlement location of the Pilgrims in 1620
triangular trade
A route that exchanged goods between the west Indies, the American Colonies, and West Africa Slaves were part of this trade.
plantation
Large farms that used slave labor to grow cash crops [Southern Colonies]
How did the environment impact the economy in the New England Colonies?
-With bad rocky soil, New England settlers used other resources at their disposal to make a profit:
Forests → lumber
Oceans → fishing
Good harbors → trading centers
How did the environment impact the economy in the Middle Colonies?
-access to natural resources allows them to make a profit
- farming (wheat, oats, barley), lumber for shipbuilding, good natural harbors for trading
How did the environment impact the economy in the Southern Colonies?
-good soil for farming cash crops like tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton
What was the environment like in the middle colonies?
Warm summers, cold winters, forests, fertile soil and moderate growing season
What was the environment like in the southern colonies?
Warm summers, very mild winters, very fertile soil, long growing season
These are the 3 major jobs in the New England Region
Fishing, Whaling Shipbuilding
This was the climate in the New England
Short Summers, Long Snowy Winters
This is what the soil in New England is like
Rocky
This is the 1st Constitution in the Colonies
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This is what the farms produced in the Middle Region
Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Corn
This was the founder of Pennsylvania who established Pennsylvania for the Quaker Religion
William Penn
These are the beliefs the Quaker Religion followed
Peacefulness & Equality for all
This is the major job in the Southern Region
Farming Tobacco & Cotton
This is the climate and soil in the Southern Region
Warm Climate with Good, Fertile Soil
This is what the farms produced in the Southern Region
Cash Crops
A large farm that grows cash crops with lots of workers in the South
Plantation
Someone who is forced to work on a plantation down South
Slave
This was the founder of Georgia
James Oglethorpe
Transferring of slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, American colonies and the European colonial powers
Triangular Trade
1620, 1st document to establish representative (or self) government in the colonies
Mayflower Compact
subsistence farming
farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
self sufficient
able to provide there own needs
charter colony
Colonies established by agreement with British government.
royal colony
A colony ruled by a governor who was appointed by the king or queen
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in 1607
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
quakers
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
proprietary colony
Great Britain gives land to an "owner", and the owner runs the colony for a profit.
Virginia House of Burgesses
the first Representative assembly in the American Colonies
Britain needed money to pay for the war with France.
Why were the colonists taxed by the British government?
French and Indian War
What war was going on that caused the British to feel the need to tax the colonists?
The British
Who wins the French and Indian War?
Proclamation of 1763
Britain wanted to avoid conflict with Native Americans, so Colonists were forbidden to cross Appalachian Mountains.
This is known as the?
Stamp Act
Tax on legal documents, newspapers, wills, and basically every piece of paper used is called the?
They organize a boycott
How did the colonists react to the Stamp Act?
George Washington
Who was appointed head of the Colonial Army?
Quartering Acts
Colonists had to provide food, housing, blankets, candles, etc. for the British soldiers.
No taxation without representation
Colonists did not feel they should be paying taxes to a government that was not hearing their voice. This is called?
To reject/refuse something to buy or participate
What is a boycott?
The Boston Tea Party
How do the colonists respond to the Tea Act?
Tories, Loyalist
What were people who supported the British called?
The Intolerable Acts
How does the British government respond to the Boston Tea Party?
The Sons of Liberty
Who participated in dumping the some 90,000 pounds of tea at the Boston Tea Party?
To seize weapons and ammunition
Main reason that the British were going to Concord
Parliament
The part of the British government that makes the laws. Is like the United States Congress.
commerce
The buying and selling of goods, usually in large quantities
debt
Money owed
patriot
Person who wanted the colonies to declare independence from Britain/England.
tyrant
A harsh, unfair leader
monopoly
When one company controls all the sales of a product, such as the British East India Tea Company
Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock
Leaders of the Sons of Liberty
Reasons people supported Loyalists
Believed king's power from God, that king was wise and experienced, that ordinary people did not know how to run a country. Felt Britain was a great empire, and did not wish to fight them. Pride.
Reasons people supported Patriots
Upset over loss of fair trials and voting rights, wanted free trade, less taxes, and believed in the rights of people to choose a fair leader.
Patriot
American colonists who opposed British rule.
Continental Army
The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.
George Washington
A delegate to Congress; he became commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army and forced to surrender.
Treaty of Paris
The peace agreement that officially ended the revolutionary war and established Britain's formal recognition of the US.
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Commander of British troops in the South, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown.
Battle of Lexington
The first military engagement of the Revolutionary War. British soldiers fired into a much smaller body of minutemen who were blocking the road in a show of force.
Battle of Concord
Hundreds of minutemen met the British at the North Bridge, exchanged gunfire, and forced the redcoats to retreat to Boston.
July 4, 1776
When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote most of the Declaration of Independence.
patriot
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
loyalist
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
militia
A group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies
neutral
Not favoring either side
boycott
A refusal to buy certain goods
repeal
To cancel
petition
A formal request.
delegate
A person appointed or elected to represent others
preamble
(n.) an introduction to a speech or piece of writing
Indian Removal Act
Congress passed in 1830 which said Native Americans had to move west of the Mississippi River
Cherokee
Native Americans who lived in Georgia
John Ross (Marshall)
Chief Justice of Supreme Court who agreed with Cherokee and fought against the Indian Removal Act
Andrew Jackson
President of US who decided to make Cherokee move and proposed the Indian Removal Act
Oklahoma
State west of the Mississippi river where Cherokee were forced to move
1/4
number of Cherokee who died on the trip
Trail of Tears
the trip from Georgia to Oklahoma was named because of so many Cherokee dying
Manifest Destiny
1800s belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent; Divine right from God to spread across the land
Trail of Tears
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people
Ecology
Science dealing with the relation of living things to their environment and to each other
Expansion
the act of increasing (something) in this case, the country
Gold Rush
a large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field
Relocation
movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant local
Oregon trail
Trail from independence Missouri to Oregon used by many pioneers during the 1840s
Pioneer
First people to populate an area during migration
Prairie
a treeless grassy plain
impressments
British practice to capture U.S. sailors and force them to perform tasks in British ships.
"The Star Spangled Banner"
Our nations National Anthem
Francis Scott Key
Author of "Star Spangled Banner"
Tecumseh
Native American leader who receive helped from Canada to fight against settlers moving West.
James Madison
President during the War of 1812.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd president of the United States who bought Louisiana from the French because we needed the port of New Orleans.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Ruler of France who needed to sell Louisiana to fight two wars.
Lewis and Clark
explorers who were chosen to explore Louisiana territory.
Louisiana Purchase
The deal with France that doubled the size of the United States costing only $15 million for 800,000 miles.
Corps of Discovery
the name of the exploration team that Lewis and Clark led, sent by Thomas Jefferson
Expedition
a trip taken to explore and discover new territory.
James Monroe
a representative that Thomas Jefferson sent to France to acquire the port of New Orleans, LA.
Sacajawea
the Native-American woman interpreter that helped the Corps of Discovery translate, and survive during the Lewis and Clark's expedition to the Pacific Ocean.
Northwest Passage
All-water route through North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific; did not exist
Fort Mandan
The location of Lewis and Clark's winter camp in present day South Dakota
New Orleans
The port of the Gulf of Mexico that Jefferson wanted access to
Missouri River
River that begins in the Rocky Mountains and flows to the Mississippi; Lewis and Clark explored it.
St. Louis
The city in Missouri from which Lewis and Clark began their expedition
Fugitive Slave Act
One part of the Compromise of 1850, this law stated that escaped slaves must be returned to masters even if they were in the North, and set harsh punishments for those assisting runaway slaves.
Dred Scott
He was a slave who was taken to free territory. He sued for his freedom and the Supreme Court declared that slaves are property, not people.
South Carolina
First state to secede/leave the Union in 1860.
Secessionists and States Rights
These people believed that since the states voluntarily joined the Union, they can also choose to leave.
Abraham Lincoln
President of the U.S., 1861-1865
Cotton
number 1 Cash Crop in the South in the 1800's.
Compromise of 1850
Law passed that gave North and South part of what they wanted. California admitted as free state, slave trade abolished in DC, and new fugitive slave law passed; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Douglas: Created Nebraska (north) and Kansas (south) as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. North disliked the Act and Southerners loved it.
John Brown
Abolitionist involved in violence in Kansas. In 1859, he led a raid of a government arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, with the intention of arming slaves and starting a revolt. He became a hero of the abolitionists in the Civil War. Brown was considered a matryr by some and a madman by others.
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party in the South was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it had a voice in politics and a 11 states seceded from the Union.
Harriet Beacher Stowe
The author of the book Uncle Toms Cabin that persuaded people to want to end slavery.
Dred Scott Decision
Ruled slaves were property, not people with rights.
Harper's Ferry
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged