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Anatomy and Physiology Final Review
Terms in this set (145)
What is anatomy?
the study of structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
What is physiology?
Study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures
What does the median plane divide the body into?
Divides the body into equal left and right halves
What does the transverse plane divide the body into?
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
What does the coronal plane divide the body into?
Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
One of the two main cavities, contains cranial and spinal cavities
Contains the brain
Contains the spinal cord
One of the two main cavities, separated by the diaphragm
Contains the lungs and heart
Divided into two cavities at the sacroiliac joint
Contains the digestive system
Contains reproductive, bladder, and rectum
What is the order or the levels of organization found in the body?
Chemical, Cellular, Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism
What is homeostasis?
The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world
What is a prime example of a negative feedback system?
Maintaining a normal range of body temperature
What is keratin?
Tough, fibrous protein that fills cells in the outer layers of epidermis, hair and nails
Where is keratin found?
Hair, skin and nails
What is the difference between eccrine & apocrine glands in the skin?
Apocrine-secrete fluid into the sac of hair follicle through which it eventually comes out on the skin (indirectly)
Eccrine-which secretes sweat directly onto the surface of the skin (directly)
Which of the eccrine and appocrine glands helps regulate body temperature?
What is the function of the arrector pili mucle?
Connects hair follicle to epidermis; creates goose bumps when contracted
What is sebum made of?
Oily substances and fragmented, dead cells
What is the function of sebaceous glands?
Skin moist, hair soft, decrease levels of bacteria on skin
What is the rule of 9's?
Head is 9%
Each arm is 9%
Each leg is 18%
Anterior torso 18%
Posterior Torso 18%
1 % pee pee area
What problems / concerns are there with critical burns?
Infection, low blood volume, breathing difficulties
Describe a third degree burn?
Extend completely through the dermis; kill nerve endings which takes away all sensation and sense of touch
What happens to the arterioles during the cold weather?
Arterioles near the surface of the skin constrict allowing less blood to the surface and therefore less heat lost by radiation
What may happen to the melanocytes and stratum germinativum when exposed to the
Melanin is produced
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
What is the function of osteoclasts?
Reabsorb bone tissue
What is the function of osteoblasts?
Deposit new bone tissue
Something from which something else originates or takes from
Where are osteoclasts found?
Endosteum; on the surface of bones
Where are osteoblasts found?
Periosteum and endosteum; in bone
Where are all blood cells produced?
Why is the epiphyseal plate important?
It allows for lengthwise growth of bone
Where are epiphyseal plates found?
Towards the end of the bone
What bones can be found in the axial skeleton? How many bones are there?
2.The ossicles of the middle ear
3. Hyoid bone
Protects underlying organs from dying out and from mechanical damage; produces vitamin D and regulates body temperature
(Skin, nails, hair, cutaneous sense organs and glands)
Rids the body of nitrogen containing wastes; conserves body water or eliminates excesses
(Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra)
Moves the limbs; allows facial expressions; generates heat
(Muscles attached to the skeleton)
Breaks down ingested food to tiny particles; undigested residue leaves the body as feces
(Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestines, teeth/saliva, gallbladder, pancreas)
Produces sperm and egg cells
(Testes, penis, ovaries, uterus)
Removes carbon dioxide from the blood and provides oxygen
(Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs)
Protects the body, destroys bacteria and tumor cells
(Spleen, thymus, tonsils)
Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues
(Heart, blood vessels, blood)
Body's responsive system; helps maintain short term homeostasis
(Brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs)
Provides support and levers on which the muscular system can act; stores minerals
(Bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints)
Promotes growth and development; produces hormones; regulates long-term homeostasis
(Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal glands, ovaries, testes, pancreas)
What structure maintains the integrity of the epiphysis in a synovial joint?
What bones make up the pelvic girdle?
What joint is formed between the two pubic bones?
What bones make up the acetabulum?
Illium, Ischium, and Pubis
What bone articulates with the acetabulum
What is a compound fracture?
Bone penetrates through the skins surface
What is a spiral fracture?
Bone breaks from twisting force
Describe the layers/layers found in a long bone from deep to superficial.
What is osteoporosis?
A condition in which bones weaken and become porous due to progressive loss of calcium.
Acetylcholine makes the sarcolemma more permeable to __________.
What structures are found in sarcomeres?
Actin and myosin as well as small quantities of troponin and tropomyosin
What is the all or none theory in muscle contraction and what does it depend on?
Action potential goes the entire length or not at all; depends on the amount of stimulus/neurotransmitters
What is the functions of muscles in general?
What is the function of the rectus abdominus?
Flexion of vertebral column
What is the function of the erector spinae?
What is the function of the deltoid?
Shoulder/Arm Abduction; flexion, hyperextension
What is the function of the bicep brachii?
What is the function of the triceps brachii?
What is the function of the pectoralis major?
Arm/shoulder adduction and flexion
What is the function of the rhomboids?
What is the function of the latissimus dorsi?
Extend and adduct arm
What is the function of the trapezius?
What is the function of the glueteal muscles?
What is the function of the quadriceps?
Knee extension and hip flexion
What is the function of the hamstring?
What is the function of the tibialis anterior?
What is the function of the gastrocnemuis?
What happens when a muscle contracts?
It shortens and pulls on the bone
What is the function of the axon?
Carries impulses FROM soma (sends information)
What is the function of the axon terminal?
Releases neurotransmitter from vesicles
What is the function of the soma?
What is the function of dendrites?
Carries impulses TO soma (receives information)
What is the function of the myelin sheath?
Increases the speed at which the impulses propagate along the myelinated fiber
What are the 3 meninges and how are they located deep to superficial?
Pia, Arachnoid, Dura (mater)
Is peristaltic movement controlled by a parasympathetic response?
Are motor neuron stimuli a part of a reflex arc?
What components make up whole blood?
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
What is found in plasma?
90% water; 10% other substances
What is the purpose of platelets?
Form blood clots when a blood vessel is injured
What is the purpose of plasma?
Transport nutrients to the body
Why don't red blood cells go through cell division?
They lack most organelles including a nucleus or mitochondria
How does the structure of the erythrocyte contribute to its function?
They have biconcave disk shapes which means surface area which enhances gas exchange
What are monocytes and neutrophils?
Specific white blood cells that phagocytose (consume/engulf)
What are the three coverings of the heart?
Pericardium, Myocardium, and Endocardium
What is the function of the endocardium?
Smooth lining keeps blood flowing smoothly and blood clots from forming
What is the function of the myocardium?
Allows for alternating contractions of chambers
What is the function of the pericardium?
Protects the heart and attaches it to surrounding structures
What is the function of the nasal cavity?
Warms and moistens air; traps debris in mucus
What is the function of the conchae?
Projections increase surface area/turbulence
What is the function of the pharynx?
Passageway for food and air
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Prevents particles from entering the trachea
What structures are in the upper respiratory tract?
Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx
What structures contain cartilage and keep it open?
What happens to the diaphragm, chest & lungs during expiration?
Diaphragm goes up (relaxes); rib cage contracts; lungs deflate
What happens to the diaphragm, chest & lungs during inspiration?
Diaphragm flattens (contracts); ribs expand; lungs inflate
What happens during external respiration?
Gas exchange occurring between blood and alveoli
What happens during internal respiration?
The exchange of gas between the blood and the cells
What happens during the respiratory gas transport?
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide from lungs to cells via the bloodstream
What happens during pulmonary ventilation?
Air moves in and out of alveoli; gasses continuously exchanged in lungs
What is the formula for vital capacity?
What is the function of the alimentary canal?
Digestion and absorption
What is the function of the mouth?
Begins the digestion process through mechanical movement and chemical process
What is the function of the tongue?
To help with chewing, swallowing, taste and speech
What is the function of the teeth?
Tear and grind food to break it into smaller pieces
What is the function of the esophagus?
Uses peristalsis to move the food down
What is the function of the stomach?
Temporary storage tank, digests food
What is the function of the small intestines?
What is the function of the large intestine?
Removes water from food that can't be digested to be excreted as feces
What is the function of goblet cells?
Produce mucus to lubricate feces as it passes
What is the function of the rectum?
Store the feces prior to defecation
What is the function of the anus?
What is the function of the gallbladder?
Stores bile when no digestion is occuring
What is the function of the liver?
What is the function of the pancreas?
Makes insulin and glucagon
Regulates blood sugar
Supplies digestive enzymes.
What is the function of the urethral sphincters?
Carries urine outside of body through peristaltic contractions
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
What is the function of the kidney?
Where is sperm formed?
Where does sperm mature?
What hormones are DIRECTLY necessary for sperm production?
When does spermatogenesis occur in the life cycle of a male?
What is the pathway of an ovum from where it is developed to where it is released from the body (if no fertilization occurs)?
What are the hormones that are DIRECTLY necessary for egg cell production?
Oogenesis produces an egg cell every ______ days (on average)
What is the purpose of progesterone?
Thickens the lining of the uterus each month
What is the order of the menstrual cycle phases?
How days are the menstrual phase and what happens during it?
1-5 days; layer of endometrium is shedded from the uterus (menstrual fluid)
How many days are the proliferative phase and what happens during it?
6-14; follicles grow and the endometrium begins regenerating
What days does ovulation occur and why?
14-15; due to surge of lutenzing hormone
What days are the secretory phase and what happens during it?
15-28; increase in progesterone and endometrial lining regenerates
What happens if fertilization does not occur?
LH decreases; blood vessels that feed the endometrial lining spasm and kink which causes lack of oxygen to lining, and then the lining dies and menses begin
Where does fertilization occur normally?
What is semen composed of?
Sperm, accessory gland fluids and enzymes
What is the purpose of the alkaline fluid found in semen?
Secreted by the prostate gland to be mixed with other fluids of semen
What are Meissner's corpuscles?
What are pacinian corpuscles?
Deep pressure receptors
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