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Ch.15: The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia
Terms in this set (46)
Describe the Journey of Xuanzang
early in the 7th century ce, the emperor of china issued an order forbidding his subjects to travel beyond chinse borders into central Asia. However, 629, Young buddhis Xuanzang to India. While studying Sanskrit language, noticed chinese writing on Buddhism contained many writings that were confusing or contradictory to those of Indian buddhist texts. guide abandoned him in desert, made way to oasis town Turpan on the silk roads. The Buddhist ruler of Turpan gave him stuff. then crossed Tian Shan, Hindu Kush, and Pamir ranges. lost one third of party in the tian shan. arrived in India in 630. stayed for twelve years and then back to china to advance the understanding of Buddhism in his native land. 645 home, news of his travels had reach the imperial court, hero's welcome and audience with the emperor.Died 664, spent remaining years translating Buddhist treatises into Chinese and promoting his faith. efforts helped to popularize Buddhism and bring about nearly universal adoption of the faith in China.
Describe life in China after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
for more than 350 years, war, invasion, conquest, and foreign rule disrupted Chinese society. toward end of 6th century, centralized imperial rule returned to China. The Sui and Tang dynast restored order and presided over an era of rapid economic growth in China.
Describe China in the post classical era
age of intense interaction with other peoples. Chinese merchants in trade networks that linked most regions of the eastern hemisphere. Buddhism spread and influenced the thought of Confucian scholars. Diplomats and armed forces introduced Chinese ways into korea and vietnam and rulers of japan looked to china for guidance in matters of political organization.
What happened in the late 6th century?
Yang Jian, from northern china, embarked on a series of military campaigns that brought all of china once again under centralized imperial rule. The sui dynasty but only lasted for less than thirty years. Then came the Tang and then the Song.
Describe Yang Jian and his state.
imposed tight political discipline on his own state and then extended rule to rest of China. Appointed Duke of Sui by turkish ruler. 580 his patron died and Yang claimed throne a year later through mandate of heaven. During next decade sent military expeditions into Central Asia and southern China. By 589 the house of Sui ruled all of China.
Describe the sui dynasty
(589-618 CE) placed enormous demands on subjects in the course of building a strong, centralized government. ordered the construction of palaces and granaries, extensive repairs on defensive walls, dispatched military forces to central Asia and korea, levied high taxes, and demanded compulsory labor services.
What was the most elaborate project undertaken during the Sui dynasty?
construction of the Grand Canal. The second emperor, Sui Yangdi (604-618 CE) completed work on the canal to facilitate trade between northern and southern China, to make abundant supplies of rice and other food crops from the Yangzi river valley available to residence of the northern region. chinese rivers flowed east to west so needed something that flowed between north and south. series of artificial waterways that reached from Hangzhou in south to the imperial capital Chang'an in the west to a terminus near modern Beijing in the north. Sui Yangdi used canals from the as early as the Zhou dynasty but linked them into a network that served most of China. it integrated the economies of northern and southern china, establishing an economic foundation for political and cultural unity.
What generated hostility towards Sui Yangdi's rule?
construction project's dependence on high taxes and forced labor. Military reverses in Korea promted discontented subjects to revolt against Sui rule. late 610s rebellions broke out in Northern Chna when Sui Yangdi sought more resources for his Korean campaign. 618 a disgruntled minister assassinated the emperor and brought end to dynasty.
How did the tang Dynasty come about?
a rebel leader seized Chang'an and proclaimed self emperor of new dynasty, Tang, which he named after his hereditary title. (618-907 CE).
who was Tang Taizong? Discuss his policies and accomplishments.
(627-649 CE). both ambitious and ruthless. high sense of duty and strove to provide an effective stable government. Built a splendid capital at Chang'an and saw self as a confucian ruler who heeded to interest of subjects. banditry ended during his reign, the price of rice remained low, and tax rate was 2.5 although rent payments and compulsory labor services meant that the effective rate of taxation was somewhat higher.
what three policies helped the success of the early tang dynasty?
maintenance of a well articulated transportation and communications network, distribution of land according to the equal fields system, and reliance on a bureaucracy based on merit. all these policies originated in the sui dynasty but tang rulers applied them better.
Describe transportations and communications in the Tang Dynasty.
apart from Grand Canal, which served as principal route for long distance transportation within china, Tang Rulers maintained an extensive communications network based on roads, horses, and sometimes human runners. on main routes, tang rulers maintained inns, postal stations, and stables. Using couriers traveling by horse, tang court could communicate with most distant cities in the empire in about 8 days.
Describe the equal-feild system
governed the allocation of agricultural land. purpose was to ensure and equitable distribution of land and to avoid concentration of landed property that had caused problems during Han dynasty. allotted land to individuals and their family according to the lands fertility and the recipients needs. 1/5 of land became hereditary possession while the rest remained available for redistribution when the original recipients needs and circumstances changed. early eight century system showed signs of strain. a rapidly rising population placed pressure on land for redistribution. influential families found ways to retain land scheduled for redistribution. large parcels of land out of system to buddhist monasteries.
Describe the Tang Dynasty's bureaucracy of merit.
tang dynasty relied heavily on a bureaucracy of merit, as reflect by performance on imperial civil service examinations. Sui and tang rulers recruited gov officials who had gone through confucian education system-chinese literature and philosophy. most office holders won post by intellectual ability. generally loyal to dynasty and worked to preserve and strengthen the state.
Describe Tang military exspansion
in north, brought Manchuria under imperial authority and forced the Silla kingdom in Korea to acknowledge the tang emperor as overlord. In sought, tang armies captured the northern part of vietnam. to west extended to aral sea and brought a portion of high plateau of tibet under tang control.
Describe tang foreign relations
revived Han policy of maintaining tributary relationships between china and neighboring lands. China was the middle kingdom, to bring order to subordinate lands through a tributary system. Neighboring lands and peoples would recognize Chinese emperors as their over lords. perform kowtow a ritual prostration during which subordinates knelt before the emperor and touched their foreheads to the ground. tributary states got confirmation of their authority as well as lavish gifts.
Describe the crisis of the Tang dynasty during the middle eight century.
755 emperor neglected public affairs, one of dynasties foremost military leaders, An Lushan, mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang'an and well as Luoyang. 757 a soldier murdered An lushan and by 763 tang forces had recovered capital. tang commanders had to invite nomadic turkish people, the Uighurs, to get rid of An lushan. the Uighurs demanded right to sack Chang'an and Luoyang after the expulsion of the rebels.
Describe the collapse of the Tang Dynasty
tang imperials housed never regained control after that crisis. equal fields system deteriorated, dwindling tax receipts failed to meet dynastic needs. Imperial armies couldnt resist turkish armies in late eight century. ninth century series of rebellions devastated the chinese country side. one led by military commander Huang Chao, embroiled much of eastern China from 875-884. revolt reflected and fueled popular discontent. routinely pillaged wealth and distributed a portion of plunder among poor. in effort to control rebels, tang gave increasing power to military commanders, became effective rulers of China. 907, last tang emperor abdicated the throne and the dynasty came to an end.
Describe how the song dynasty came into power
following collapse of tang, warlords ruled china until song dynasty reimposed centralized imperial rule (960-1279 CE). never built a very powerful state, mistrusted military leaders and placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts then on military affairs.
Describe the policies and ways of the first song emperor.
Song Taizu (960-976) was proclaimed emperor by his troops. next several years, subjected the warlords to his authority and consolidated song control throughout China. forced generals to retire. regarded all state officials as servants of the imperial government. song rulers rewarded them greatly for loyalty. expanded bureaucracy based on merit by making more opportunities for indiv to seek a confucian education and take civil service examinations. accepted many more candidates and provided generous salaries. placed civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces.
What were the two main problems caused by the song approach to administration?
the enormous song bureaucracy devoured China's surplus production. efforts to raised taxes pissed off peasants, two major rebellions int eh early twelfth century. Scholar bureaucrats had little military education and talent yet they led song armies in the field and made decisions. Nomads flourished along China's northern border. 10th-12th the Khitan demanded large payments of silk and silver from song in south. 12th the Jurchen conquered them, overran northern china, captured song capital at Kaifeng, and proclaimed establishment of Jin Dynasty. song to Hangzhou and survived in south, latter part of dynasty known as southern song. bordered jin midway between yell river and yangzi river, until 1279 when Mongol forced ended dynasty and incorporated southern china into their empire.
When did economic development become most clear?
originated in tang dynasty but became most clear during the song. stimulated trade and production throughout most of the eastern hemisphere from about 600 to 1300 CE.
Describe agricultural development
foundation of economic development in Tang and Song China was a surge in agricultural production. Sui and Tang prepared for inc ag prod when the took southern china and into vietnam-fast ripening strains of rice that enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year. into southern china up food production.
Describe New Agricultural techniques.
heavy iron plows, harness oxen in north and waterbuffalow in south. enriched soil with manure and organic composted matter. reseviors, dikes, dams, canals, pumps and water wheels powered by both animal and human energy that moved water into irrigation systems. terraced mountain sides.
Describe the results of increased agricultural production.
rapid expansion of chinese population. increased food supplies encouraged the growth of cites. during tang dynasty, imperial capital of Chang'an was world most populous city. During song dynasty, China was most urbanized land in the world. Hangzhou 13th century capital of southern song dynasty. most popular poet of tang era Li Bo (701-761) took social life of these chinese cities as one of his principal themes. increased food production led to an emergence of a commercialized agricultural economy. many cultivators could purchase inexpensive rice and race veggies and fruits to sell in commercial markets. exported harvests to distant regions. Souther province of Fujian imported rice and produced Lychees, oranges, and sugarcane-high priced in northern markets.
describe the tightening of patriarchal social structures in Tang and Song China
maybe represented an effort to preserve family fortunes through enhanced family solidarity. during song dynasty, the veneration of ancestors became much more elaborate than before. graveside rituals. whole family annual ritual venerations-strengthened sense of family identity and cohesiveness. Foot binding in much privileged classes during song era. bond feet of daughters to enhance their attractiveness, display their high social standing, and grain increased control over girls behavior.
Describe technological and industrial interests during the Tang and Song dynasties.
During tang times discovered techniques of producing high quality porcelain. lighter thinner and adaptable to more uses than earlier pottery. Abbased craftworkers produced porcelain in large quantities. Chinese exported vast quantities of porcelain during tang and song times. became known generally as chinaware. production of iron and steel surged during this era, use coke instead of coal in their furnaces and produce superior grades of metal. 9-12th iron production increased ten fold. weaponry and agricultural tools. song dynasty-iron arrowheads. iron and steel into large construction projects such as bridges and pagodas. song military difficulties stemmed from the fact that nomads quickly learned chines techniques and fashioned own iron weapons.
Describe the invention of gunpowder
Daoist alchemists discovered how to make gunpowder during the Tang dynasty while seeking elixirs to prolong life. mid tenth cent using gunpowder (charcoal, saltpeter, sulphur, arsenic) in fire lances, and by 11th cent primitive bombs. refinements enhanced gunpowder weapons. diffused through Eurasion. late 13th cent southwest Asia an Europe experimenting with metal barreled cannons.
Describe the invention of printing.
may have predated sui dynasty but only during tang era did printing become common. block printing techniques: carved reverse image of entire page into wooden block inked block, and pressed a sheet of paper on top. printers often found moveable type to be unwieldy and inconvenient continued to print from wooden blocks long after moveable type became available. produce texts quickly, cheaply, and in large quantities. late 9th cent printed copies of buddhist texts, Confucian works, calendars, agricultural treatises, and popular works in large quantities (southwest Asia). song dynasty officials took agricultural works to country side.
Describe naval technology
In tang times, chinese consumers wanted products from southeast Asian islands, and chinese mariners increasingly visited these lands in their own ships. by song dynasty, ships fastened with iron nails, water proofed with oils, furnished with watertight bulkheads, driven by canvas and bamboo sails, steered by rudders, and navigated with aid of southpoingint needle, the magnetic compass. larger ships sometimes had small rockets powered by gunpowder. waters between japan and malay peninsula but some ventured into the Indian Ocean and called at ports in India, Ceylon, Persia, and east africa. diffused compass throughout Indian ocean basin.
Why did letters of credit come into common use during early tang times?
trade grew so much in tang and song times that china experienced a shortage of copper coins that served as money. letters of credit became common during early tang dynasty. flying cash deposit and withdrawal in separate places. promissory notes=promise of payments at a later date and checks=bearer to draw funds against cash deposited with bankers. merchants pioneered the use of printed paper money during the late ninth century. printed notes clients could redeem for merchandise. 11th century government confined right of printing money to the state. the first paper money printed under government auspices was in 1024 in Sichuan province, most active center of early printing. rulers of nomads in central asia soon began to adopt practices. gov authorities frequently printed more money than they actually had in cash reserves-partial loss of public confidence in paper money. late 11th centy some notes of paper money would only get 95% of their face value in cash. not until Qing dynasty (1644-1911) did chinese authorities place the issuance of money under tight fiscal controls.
What did trade and urbanization transform tang and song china into?
a prosperous, cosmopolitan society. Muslim merchants from the Abassid empire and central Asia helped to revive the silk roads network and flocked to large chinese trading centers. Subjects of Byzantine empire along silk roads to China. Musicians and dancers of persia became popular entertainers in cosmopolitan cities of the tang dynasty. Arab, Persian, Indian, and malay mariners from Indian ocean and South China sea established sizable merchant communities in the bustling souther chinese port cities of Guangzhou and Quanzhou. rebel general Huang Chao massacred 120,000 foreigners when he sacked Guangzhou in 879.
Describe the establishment of religions in Tang and Song China
after fall of Han, confucian tradition lost its credibility. in an age of warlords and nomadic invasions, it seemed that the confucian tradition had simply failed. during time after fall of han several foreign religions settled in china-Nestorian christians and Manichaeans, followed by Zoroastrians. Tang Taizong issued proclamation praising Nestorians allowed them to open monasteries in Chang'an and other cities. Mid 7th cent, Arab and persian merchants had established muslim communities in port cities of south China. mostly served needs of foreign merchants and nomads.
Describe Mahayanna Buddhism in tang and song China
Buddhism came to china over the silk roads. oases became sites of Buddhist missionary efforts. 4th cent sizable community in Dunhuang in western China. 600-1000 Buddhists built hundreds of cave temples-Buddha and boddhisatvas. libraries of religious literature and operated scriptoria to produce Buddhist texts. attracted chinese interests because of it high standards of morality, intellectual sophistication, and its promise of salvation. buddhist monasteries in china cultivated their lands stored portion of harvests and gave to locals during times of hardship. Buddhist monasteries became important elements in local economies of chinese communities. buddhist use texts as jumping off point for elaborate metaphysical discussions whereas only confucians placed great emphasis on written texts, but practical stuff not metaphysical. buddhist focused stingily on perfection asceticism and celibacy but chinese values were family oriented.
Describe the relationship between buddhism and daoism.
buddhist missionaries explained buddhist concepts to chinese through vocabulary borrowed form daoist traditions. dharma (basic buddhist doctrine) into dao (the way) nirvana as wuwei(the doaist ethic of non competition). also recognized validity of family life and offered buddhism as a religion that would benefit the extended chinese family.
What was the result of the mix of Buddhist and Daoist terms?
a syncretic faith, a Buddhism with chinese characteristics. Chan buddhists in china-emphasized intuition and sudden flashes of insight in their search for spiritual enlightenment. pilgrims played huge roles in establishing faith in china. Daoists resented the popular following that buddhists attracted. Confucians despised Buddhist exaltations of celibacy and denounced faith as alien superstition. condemned monasteries as wasteful unproductive burdens on society. 840s tang emperors ordered the closure of monasteries as well as the expulsion of Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Nestorian Christians, and Manichaeans. did not eradicate foreign faiths in china. buddhism influenced the development of the confucian tradition during the song dynasty.
What did the song emperors do instead of persecute Buddhists?
actively supported native chinese cultural traditions-the confucian tradition.
Describe the new confucian tradition of the song dynasty
studied the classic works of their tradition, but they also became familiar with the writings of Buddhists. buddhism offered a tradition of logical thought and argumentation but also delta with issues not systematically explored by confucian thinkers. became known as neo-Confucianism.
Who was the most important representative of Song neo-Confucianism
was the philosopher Zhu Xi (1130-1200CE) emphasized confucian values of proper personal behavior and social harmony. Family Rituals, proper roles in family and larger society. Concentrated his own efforts on abstract and abstruse issues of more theoretical than practical significance. he wrote extensively on metaphysical themes such as the nature of reality. li: a principle that defines the essence of being and qi: its material form.
illustrates the deep influence of buddhism in chinese society. neo-confucianism influenced east asian though over a very long term.
What did tang armies do during the 7th century?
conquered much of korea before the native sill dynasty rallied to prevent chinese domination of the peninsula. political compromise: Chinese forces withdrew from korea, and the silla king recognized the tang emperor as overlord. korea entered into a tributary relationship with China. opened doors for korean merchants to trade in china and got gifts back worth more than what they gave. silla kings built new capital Kumsong molded after Chang'an. korean elites turned to confucious, peasants and commoners turned toward chan buddhism. royal houses dominated korean society.
Describe China's relationship with vietnam?
chinese call land Nam Viet, spirited resistance from viet people who had settled around red river. Viets adopted chinese agricultural methods and irrigation systems as well as chinese schools and systems of administration. vietnamese authorities entered into tributary relationships with the chinese court. mounted a series of revolts against tang authorities. won independence in early 10th cent ce. many vietnamese retained their indigenous religions in preference to chinese cultural traditions. women played much more prominent role in vietnamese society than in China. established an administrative system and bureaucracy modeled on that of china and viet ruling classes confucian education. Buddhism got large following.
Describe early japan
nomadic peoples from northeast Asia. language, material culture, and religion from parent society in northeast Asia. migrants from korean peninsula introduced rice bronze and iron and horses. imperial court modeled on that of the tang, chinese style bureaucracy, implemented an equal field system, official support for confucianism and buddhism. 710 new capital at Nara replica of Chang'an nara period 9710-794) continued to observe rights of shinto-veneration of ancestors and spirits and deities.
Describe Heian and the Heian period
794 capital to Heian. 9794-1185 CE local rulers on the island of Honshu mostly recognized the emperor as japans supreme political authority. emperors where ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority. power in hands of Fujiwara family. an aristocratic family that controlled affairs from behind the throne through its influence over the imperial house and the manipulation of its members.
Who contributed the most to literature of the japanese language?
aristocratic women. The tale of Genji Murasaki Shikibu
What happened by the 11th century?
two clans the tiara and the minamoto. 1185 minamoto won war. claimed to rule the land in the name of the emperor installed clan leader as shogun-a military governor who ruled in place of the emperor and established seat of their gov in Kamakura while imperial court remained at Kyoto.
Hat is Japans medieval period?
the kamakura(1185-1333) and Muromachi (1336-1573) periods. a middle era falling between the age of chinese influence and court domination of political life in japan, as represented by the Nara and Heian periods and the modern age, inaugurate by the Tokugawa dynast in the 16th century, when a centralized gov unified and ruled all of japan. decentralized political order in which provincial lords in local regions where they controlled land and economic affairs. valued military talent and discipline the samurai played most distinctive role-professional warriors. served provincial lords of japan.
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