Europe in Middle Ages
Terms in this set (37)
Why do you think Pope Urban II called the First Crusade a "just" or honorable war?
The crusades were able to capture Jerusalem and set up four Christian kingdoms.
What were the main effects of the Crusades on life in Europe?
Uniting Europeans against a common enemy (Muslim and Turks), so they would stop fighting against themselves.
How much power did kings have under feudalism?
Under this, land was owned by kings or lords, but held by vassals in return for their loyalty. But the owners of manors (the nobles) had the most power and were richer than the king.
What were two limits on the king's power established by the Magna Carta?
He could no longer jail any freeman without just cause, and he could not raise taxes without consulting his Great Council of lords and clergy.
What are guilds?
a medieval organization made up of crafts workers or tradespeople
What factors led to the increase in trade in Western Europe?
In the middle of the Middle Ages, feudalism was well established. Europe was becoming a safer place and its populations was growing. People began to travel more, the crusaders brought many desirable goods back from Asia. Europeans began to demand such things as spices and cloth that they could get only from Africa and Asia. Ancient trade routes came into use again as European merchants traveled abroad to buy and sell valued goods.
How was a manor organized?
The manor, a large estate that included farm fields, pastures, and often an entire village. It also included a large house, called the manor house, where the lord, or ruler, of the manor lived.
Why did the collapse of the Roman Empire lead to a new age in Western Europe?
When the roman empire collapsed, it was replaced by a patchwork of small kingdoms, who were often at war with each other. Charlemagne, a skilled military leader, expanded his kingdom by conquering these weaker kingdoms and ruled an empire for about 50 years that stretched across most of Western Europe. He established schools to promote learning and culture, spread Christianity, issued money, and improved the economy.
Why did Christians fight the Muslim Turks?
In order to reopen the Holy Land
What was the largest and most powerful religion in Western Europe in the Middle Ages?
Roman Catholic Church
Between whom was the Hundred Years' War fought?
France and England
One thing that helped trade grow during the Middle Ages was?
What was one problem medieval cities faced?
Crowded and unhealthy conditions
How could peasants improve their standard of living?
By moving to towns
How did kings gain power when feudalism weakened?
When the feudal system declined, the nobles' power did too. So the kings began to support the new towns in exchange for money. They agreed to protect towns and made laws to help towns grow rich. Kings hired armies to attack troublesome nobles. Kings claimed the land owned by nobles killed in the Crusades.
Kings and popes often disagreed over who should select whom?
Who were the first Christians to fight the Muslims for the Holy Land?
Led by Peter the Hermit
Why is the Holy Land important?
It is sacred to three religions.
How was life in the towns different from life on the manor?
Manors had to be self-sufficient. In the towns, people exchanged goods and services for money.
If a peasant escaped to a city and lived there for a year and a day, what happened?
What was one reason the Church was so powerful during medieval times?
It made laws and set up courts to enforce them.
What did most peasants need the lord's permission to do?
Get married or leave the manor
What was the lord's main duty toward the people who pledged loyalty to him?
To protect them and their lands
an unpaid person training in a craft or trade
a council of lords, clergy, and common people that advised the English king on government matters
persons with authority to perform religious services
the code of honorable conduct for knights
a community of people that shares territory and a government
who receives honor and land in exchange for serving his lord as a soldier
a series of military expeditions launched by the Christian Europeans to win the Holy Land back from Muslim control
a person who journeys to a sacred place
a farm worker considered part of the manor on which he or she worked
a large estate, often farms and a village, ruled by a lord
a traveling poet and musician of the Middle Ages
referring to the Middle Ages
the years between ancient and modern times
the "Great Charter," in which the king's power over his nobles was limited, agreed to by King John of England in 1215
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