How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

165 terms

music test #2

STUDY
PLAY
Middle Ages years
450-1450
For over 1,000 years the official music of the Roman Catholic church has been __________.
Gregorian Chant
consist of melody set to sacred Latin texts and sung without accompaniment
Gregorian Chant
____________, recognized the Catholic liturgy during his reign from 590-604.
Pop Gregory I
creator of the Gregorian Chant
Pope Gregory I
the highlight of the liturgical day, was a ritual reenactment of the last supper
mass
Gregorian melodies were passed on through ___________
oral tradiation
consists of seven different tones and an eigth tone that duplicates the first tone an octave higher.
church modes
the basic scales of western music during the middle ages and renaissance, were used in secular as well as sacred music.
church modes
Latinezed form of the Hebrew hallelujah (praise ye the Lord)
Alleluia
Alleluia chant is in what form?
ABA form
Who sings "O successores?
Hildegard of Bingen
wrote poetry and music,treatises on theology, science, and medicine, and a musical drama "Ordo virtutum"
Hildegard of Bingen
earliest known morality play
Ordo virtutum
was composed to be sung by the nuns in her convent
O successores
consist of one or more long, sustained tones accompanying a melody
drone
the pleasure of secular music and dance were vividly evoked by the 13th century theologian _______________
Henri de Malines
he was familiar with and willingly sand all kinds of monophonic songs in various languages
Henri de Malines
French nobles
troubadours and trouveres
the first large body of secular songs surviving in decipherable notation were conposed during the 12th and 13th centuries by ____________
french nobles
wandering minstrels
jongleurs
they performed music and acrobats in castles, taverns, and town squares. had no civil rights and were on the lowest social level, with prostitutes and slaves, only a lucky few found steady work
wandering minstrels
a medieval dance, is on of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music
estampie
a single melodic line is noted and no instrument is specified.
estampie
a bowed string instrument
rebec
a tubular wind instrument
pipe
an estampie's melody is played on the __________ and a ___________
rebec; pipe
a plucked or strung instrument
psaltery
the _______ is in triple meter and has a strong fast beat
estampie
medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines is called ______________
organum
_______ - the intellectual and artistic capital of Europe, became the center of polyphonic music
Paris
supreme monument of Gothic architecture
Cathedral of Notre Dame
among the first notable coposers known by name. they and their followers are referred to as the school of Notre Dame
Leonin and Perotin
definite time values and clearly defined meters
measured music
secular music became more important than sacred music in the ___ century
14th
became an important rythmatic pattern in the 14th century
syncopation
changes in musical style in the 14th century were so profound that music theorists referred to Italian and French music as the ________
new art, ars nova in Latin
one of the most important composers whose works has survived
Machaut
was about sixty, fell in love with a beautiful noble, exchanged poems and letters for several years, difference in age proved too great and their relationship ended in mutual dissappointment
Machaut
one of the main poetic and musical forms in 14th and 15th century France
rondeau
Puis qu'en oubli sue de vous is a ____________
rondeau
one of the finest compositions known from the middle ages, is also of great historical important.
Notre Dame Mass
if is the first poluphonic treatment of the mass ordinary by a known composer
Notre Dame Mass
consists of texts that remain the same from day to day through out the church year
mass ordinary
Five sung prayers of the ordinary
1. Kyrie
2. Gloria
3. Credo
4. Sanctus
5. Agnus Dei
the five sung prayers of the ordinary masss have been set to ____________ music and have inspired some of the greatest choral works
polyphonic
performed in the early 1360's for performance at the cathedral of Reims
Notre Dame Mass
Renaissance years
1450-1600
wrote The Book of Courtier
Castiglione
many leading renaissance leaders came from?
the Low Countries
a low country which now includes parts of the netherlands, belguim, and northern france
flanders
musical representation of specific poetic images often used in Renaissance
word painting
the texture of renaissance music is chiefly __________
polyphonic
renaissance music sounds ________ than medieval music
fuller
unaccompanied choral music
a cappella
often called the "golden age"
renaissance
a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass
motet
is a polyphonic coral composition made up of five sections: Kyria. Gloria, Credo, SAnctus, and Agnus Dei.
mass
was a master of Renaissance music, spent much of his life in Italy serving in dukes private chapels and in the papal choir at Rome.
Josquin Desprez
Josquin's four voice motet
Ave Maria
Latin prayer set to delicate and serene music
Ave Maria
the most impotant Italian Renaissance composer, devoted himself to music for the Catholic church.
Giovanni Pierluidi da Palestrina
career was centered in Rome, he held important church positions, music director for St. Peter's
Giovanni Pierluidi da Palestrina
Palestrina's most famous mass, thought to have convinced the Council of Trent tat polyphonis masses should be kept in Catholic worship
Pope Marcellus Mass
written for an a cappella choir of six voice parts, soprano, alto, two tenors, and two bases.
Pope Marcellus Mass
has a rich polyphonic texture. six voice parts that constantly imitate each other.
Kyrie
a piece for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love. combines homophonic and polyphonic textures uses word painting and unusual harmonies
madrigal
finest English madrigalist or organist and church composer, As Vesta Was Descending,
Thomas Weelkes
has the light mood of English madrigals, word painting is plentiful,
As Vesta Was Descending
derives from the Arab instrument known as the "ud", is a plucked string instrument with a body shaped like half a pear
lute
the leading English composer of the lite songs, Flow My Tears
John Dowland
consist of 3\three brief musical sections, that are each immediatly repeated
Flow My Tears
instrumental music became more important during ___________
Renaissance
popular Renaissance entertainment
dancing
Baroque period years
1600-1750
a baroque piece usually expresses one basic mood
affections
alternation between loud and soft music
terraced dynamics
produced sound by means of brass blades striking the strings
clavichord
is usually played by at least two instruments and a low melodic instrument
basso continuo
bass part with numbers
figured bass
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent bbut is part of a larger composition
movement
in the mid eighteenth century, was a fluist and good composer as well as a feared general
Frederick the Great
a small group of soloists is pitted against a larger group of players called the tutti
concerto grosso
a large group of players in a concerto grosso
tutti
there are three movements in a concerto gross
fast, slow, fast
first and last movements of the concerti grosso, based on alternation between tutti and solo sections
ritornello form
a fine example of ritornello form
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5
a polyphonic composition based on one main them called a subject
fugue
one main theme in a fugue
subject
when the second voice presents the subject
answer
five scales higher than the tonic
dominant scale
the subjectin one voice is constantly accompanied in another voice by a different melodic idea called a __________
countersubject
transitional sections, which offer either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject
episodes
a subject matter in imitated before it is completed, one voice tries to catch the other
stretto
a single tone is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it
pedal point, or organ point
a subject can be turned upside down, in a procedure callled _________
inversion
the subject may be presented with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first
retrograde
the subject may be presented, in which the original time values are lengthened
augmentation
the subject may appear with shortened time values
diminution
an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called a _______
prelude
drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment
opera
text of the opera is usually written by librettist and set to music by the composer
libretto
dramatist that write the libretto
librettist
the 7 voice catagories of opera
1. coloratura soprano
2. lyric soprano
3. dramatic soprano
4. lyric tenor
5. dramatic tenor
6. basso buffo
7. basso profondo
voice catagory of opera that has very high range, can execute rapid scales and trills
coloratura soprano
voice catagory of opera that has rather light voice, sings rolesalling fo grace and charm
lyric soprano
voice catagory of opera that has full, powerful voices, is capable of passionate intensity
dramatic soprano
voice catagory of opera that has relatively light, bright voice
lyric tenor
voice catagory of opera that has powerful voice, is capable of heroic expression
dramatic tenor
voice catagory of opera that takes comic roles, can sing very rapidly
basso buffo
voice catagory of opera that has very low range, powerful voice, takes roles calling for great dignity
basso profondo
a song or solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
aria
a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
recitative
when three of more singers are involved
ensemble
generates atmosphere and makes comments on the action
chorus
gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget
prompter
a sunken area directly infront of the stage
orchestra pit
most operas open with a purely orchestral compostition called an ________, or a ________
overture; prelude
Opera was born in ______
Italy
small group of nobles, poets, and composters who began to meet regurlarly in Florence around 1575, Italian for fellowship or society, included the composer Vincenzo Galilei
Camerata
the earliest opera that has been preserved
Euridice by Jacopo Peri
the first public opera house opened in ?
Venice
a male singer who had been castrated before puberty
castrato
recitatives were usually accompanied only by a basso continuo, they are called ________
secco recitatives
at emotional high points and moments of tension, recitatives might be supported by the orchestra, they are then called ___________
accompanied recitatives
one of the most important composers of the early baroque era. was born in Cremono, Italy
Claudio Monteverdi
first earliest operatic master piece by Monteverdi
Orfeo
called the greatest of English composers, was born in London
Henry Purcell
at about 18 he became composer to the king's string orchestra, two years later he was appointed organist of Westminister Abbey, in 1682 he became an organist of the Chapel Royle, was also active composting music for plays
Henry Purcell
died at 36, was burried beneath the organ in Westminister Abbey
Henry Purcell
repeated musical idea
ground bass or basso ostinato
was written for students at a girls' boarding school
Dido and Aeneas
Dido and Aeneas was by?
Nahum Tate
a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments
sonato
had three melodic lines, two high lines and a basso continuo
trio sonatas
trio sonata actually includes ____ instruments
four, two high instruments, and two for the basso continuo
most prominent Italian violinist, laid the foundations of modern violin technique
Arcangelo Corelli
a plucked string instrument which is capable of producing chords as well as the bass line
cello, or theorbo
the sonata consist of four short movements
fast, fast, slow, fast
a towering figure of the late Italian baroque, was born in Venice, his father was a violinist at St. Marks Cathedral
Antonio Vivaldi
violin teacher, composer, ad conductor at the music school of Pieta
Vivaldi
a piece for a single soloist and an orchestra
solo concerto
a set of four solo concertos for violin, string orchestra, and basso continuo. depicts sounds and events associated with one of the seasons.
La Primavera
an ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart
trill
marked the high point of baroque music, four of his sons were composers
Johann Sebastian Bach
the term used for music created at the same time it is performed
improvisation
sets of dance-inspired movements
suites
the movements of a suite are usually in __________
two part form, AABB
______ begin with a movement that is not dance inspired
suites
first presents a slow section with dotted rhythms that is full of dignity and granduer, the second section is quick and lighter in mood, often beginning like a fugue
French overture
hymn tune, was sung to a German religious text
chorale
a short composition based of the hymn tune that reminded the congregation of the melody
choral prelude
the principal means of musical expression in the Lutheran service, and one which used chorales was the church __________
cantana
originally meant a piece that was sung as distinct from a sonata, which was played
cantana
one of Bach's best known cantana's, is based on a chorale which was then about 130 years old and widely familiar
Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Cantana No. 140)
a large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloist, and orchestra, it is usually set to a narrative text.
oratorio
based on biblical stories, but usually are not intended for religious services
oratorio
a master of Italian opera and English oratorio, was born in Halle, Germany, one month before J.S. Bach.
George Frideric Handel
took a well paid position as music director for Elector Georg Ludwig of Hanover, after a month was asked to leave to go to London where his opera Rinaldo was being produced
George Frideric Handel
became England's most important composer and a favorite of Queen Anne. was the director of the Royal Academy of Music
George Frideric Handel
lasts about two and a half hours and was composed in just 24 days.
Messiah
Messiah was written by _________
George Frideric Handel
starts with the prophecy of the Messiah's coming and makes celestial annoucements of Christ's birth and the redemption of humanity through the appearance.
Part I of the Messiah
has been aptly described by on Handel scholar as "the accomplishment of redemption by the sacrifice of Jesus, mankinds rejection of God's offer and mankinds utter defeat when trying to oppose the power of the Almighty"
Part II of the Messiah
expresses faith in the certainty of eternal life thourgh Christ as redeemer
Part III of the Messiah