23 terms

AQA A-Level Biology - Mitosis

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PMAT
Abbreviation of the four stages of mitosis
Prophase
The chromosomes thicken and condense, becoming visible. The nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase
The chromosomes align in the centre of the cell. Spindle fibres begin to attach to each sister chromatid
Anaphase
The sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell. The centromeres divide in two and move to opposite poles of the cell, pulled by microtubules
Telophase
The start of the cell division where the spindle fibres disintergrate and the nucleolus reforms
Cytokinesis
The process by which the cell splits into two at the end of mitosis, forming a new nuclear envelope and plasma membrane
Chromatid
Half a chromosome
Homologous Chromosomes
Identical chromosomes
Centromere
The central region of a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
Mitosis
The process that produces two daughter cells and have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Binary Fission
The process of cell division in prokaryotic cells
First Stage of Binary Fission
The circular DNA replicates, both copies attach to the cell membrane. The plasmid also replicates
Second Stage of Binary Fission
The cell membrane grows between the replicated DNA and begins to pinch inwards which splits the cytoplasm in two. The new cell wall forms, forming the complete daughter cells
The Importance of Mitosis
Used for growth, repair and reproduction
Interphase
The DNA replication that occurs before mitosis. This takes up 90% of the cell cycle
Growth 1 Stage
The first part of interphase. Parts of the cell reproduce, such as organelles and the cytoplasm
Synthesis Stage
The second part of interphase. The DNA packaged into chromosomes replicate. This forms sister chromatids
Growth 2 Stage
The final part of interphase. The stage by which the cell checks that the replication process has been a success before the cell undergoes mitosis, further growth may occur to ensure everything has been replicated correctly
Chemotherapy
A type of cancer treatment that; prevents DNA replication or inhibits metaphase by damaging spindle fibres so the chromosomes cannot travel to the poles of the cell
Cancerous
What a tumour is called when it goes from benign to malignant
Benign
Where a tumour grows to a certain size and then stops growing any further; does not spread
Malignant
A tumour that can spread around the body, is often life threatening
The Cell Cycle
The process of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis

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