Upgrade to remove ads
AQA A Level History Industrialisation Chapter 6
Terms in this set (84)
Who formed the first coalition against France?
Britain, Prussia, Austria, Holland and Spain
When was the first coalition against France formed?
When did the first coalition collapse?
Who formed the second coalition against France?
Britain, Russia, Austria, Portugal, Naples and the Ottomans
When was the second coalition against France formed?
When did the second coalition against France collapse?
What halted the war between Britain and France in March 1802?
The Treaty of Amiens
Why did Addington declare war on France in May 1803?
Because Napoleon breached the terms of the treaty of Amiens
Why was Addington criticised for resuming the war against France?
Because he had hesitated before doing so, and was then indecisive
Who formed the third coalition against France?
Britain, Russia and Austria
When was the third coalition against France formed?
When did the third coalition against France collapse?
When was the Battle of Trafalgar?
When did Napoleon issue the Berlin decrees?
When did Napoleon issue the Milan decrees?
December 17th 1807
When did Britain issue the Orders in Council?
When did the Peninsular war start and why?
1807 when France invaded Portugal
When in the 1810s did the USA declare war on Britain?
Who were the 5 Prime Ministers between Pitt and Liverpool (in chronological order please)?
Henry Addington, Pitt, Lord Grenville, Duke of Portland, Spencer Perceval
What years was Addington in power?
What years was Pitt in power for the second time?
May 1804- 23rd January 1806
What years was Grenville in power?
23rd January 1806-07
What years was Portland in power?
What years was Spencer Perceval in power?
When was the Prince of Wales made Regent?
When was the Levee en Masse Act introduced?
What did the Levee en Masse Act do?
Raised a home guard almost 800,000 strong by listing all men aged 17-55 who were to be armed, trained and ready to fight
What did Addington do to help the war effort?
Introduced efficiencies in income tax in 1803 to boost funds, believed it was important to defeat Napoleon at sea and ordered a blockade of French ports and a cleanup of corruption within the Navy Board
When did Pitt die?
23rd January 1806
What treaty did Russia sign with Napoleon ending the third coalition?
Treaty of Tilsit
When did the disastrous Walcheren expedition on the Dutch coast occur?
What did the Berlin Decrees say?
That Britain was in a state of blockade and that European trade with Britain was forbidden
Why was Grenville against the Orders in Council?
He believed in free trade
What was Napoleon's system of not trading with Britain called?
What did the Orders in Council say?
That all countries which excluded British ships would be subjected to a British blockade, and that neutral ships which traded with blockaded ports would have restrictions imposed upon them
How did Napoleon sabotage his own blockade?
During the harvest shortages of 1808-10 in Britain he allowed the export of French wheat under license
How did Napoleon turn the Spanish against him?
By marching his troops through Spain to get to Portugal, and by using bullying tactics
How was British trade with Portugal affected by Napoleon's Continental Blockade?
It actually increased fivefold
What was the Bank of England forced to do in 1797 due to the fall in price of government stock?
Suspend payments in gold and implement a paper currency to avert a serious financial crisis
What was the National Debt at the start of the French Wars?
Around £228 million
What was the National Debt in 1801?
What was the National Debt in 1815?
Why was Pitt's Sinking Fund a failure in wartime?
The price of borrowing money had risen, but Pitt would not renege on the debt
When did Pitt introduce income tax for the first time and why?
1798 as an alternative to raising loans
Why was money needed in the French wars apart to pay for British army supplies?
To pay subsidies to keep Britain's allies in the field
What was the rate of Pitt's income tax of 1798?
A maximum rate of 10% on all incomes over £60
What did Pitt do in 1805 to income tax?
Imposed it on all incomes over £150
What had income tax begun to do by 1806?
Offset some of the high costs of war and help Britain's financial recovery
What increased demand for coal, iron and Watt's steam engines during the French wars?
Demand for armaments boosting demand for coal and iron, which in turn needed more steam engines to help manufacture them
What stimulated the textile industry during the French wars?
The need for uniforms and blankets for the armies of navies of Britain, her allies and even her own enemies
Apart from to sell wheat, why was Napoleon forced to lift his own blockade from time to time?
To buy much-needed British greatcoats and boots for his armies
What was the cause of a serious economic and political crisis in 1810-11?
The government's continued issuing of Orders in Council
How did most merchants and manufacturers see the Orders in Council?
Unnecessary government interference, especially when the USA closed its ports to British and French shipping, which caused them to clamour for the Orders' removal
What did some British merchants see the Orders in Council as an opportunity to do?
Switch their trade to South American countries eager for British goods
What happened when British manufacturers started trading with South America because of the Orders in Council?
They over-produced and within months faced an economic collapse
What were some problems in 1810-11 apart from overproduction?
Two consecutive harvests failed, several banks collapsed,What a shortage of cash, overproduction of banknotes, inflation
What did the demand for uniforms do apart from stimulating the textile industry?
Stimulated the development of more productive machinery, leading to unemployment amongst traditional hand workers
What was the average price of wheat in 1793?
~47 shillings a quarter
What was the average price of wheat between 1803-13?
92 shillings a quarter
When did the price of wheat peak during the French wars and at what price?
1812 at 126 shillings
What type of machine destroyed the livelihood of skilled handloom workers?
The power loom
Which places had outbreaks of unrest and some machine breaking in the early 1810s as a result of increased mechanisation?
The manufacturing districts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottingham and Derby
When was unrest in the manufacturing districts of Northern England first associated with the Luddites?
What did handloom weavers petition Parliament for, only to have it rejected in 1808?
A Minimum Wage Bill
What happened when Parliament rejected the Minimum Wage Bill petition in 1808?
There was serious rioting, followed by a strike which only ended when employers agreed to a wage rise for the weavers
When was there a significant phase of price rises in Britain in the 1810s?
1811-14, when they rose to a level higher than at any time in the 19th century
What reasons contributed to the price rises from 1811-14?
A failure by the Bank of England to agree to a resumption of cash payments, too many banks notes being issued (which caused inflation), commercial speculation and poor harvests
What were diets like in 1811-14?
Less varied than previously- many urban and rural poor were starving
What was there a drop in the purchases of in the years 1811-14?
Who benefited from price rises in the 1811-14 period and why?
Farmers and landowners, because rents and profits rose
How did Spencer Perceval die?
He was shot in the lobby of Parliament
Why did labouring classes grow resentful during the French wars?
They could see others profiting from the war, but most of them were suffering because of it
What cabinet roles had Lord Liverpool filled before becoming Prime Minister?
Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary and Secretary of War and the Colonies
What is Viscount Sidmouth's other name?
Henry Addington, ex-PM
Who did Lord Liverpool appoint as his PM?
Viscount Sidmouth, a.k.a. Henry Addington
What was the population in 1801?
What was the population in 1811?
How did Britain change demographically during the years of the French Wars?
There were fewer but larger farms, so much migration from rural to urban areas
What is an example of a prominent radical MP in Parliament in the 1810s and when was he first elected?
Sir Francis Burdett, elected 1807
What were Jeremy Bentham's ideas about reform?
That political reform must come before any other reform
When was the Hampden Club founded?
Who founded the Hampden Club?
A group of leading radicals
Who launched the Political Register in 1802?
What did the Political Register do?
Expose the government's mishandling of the war and, in 1806, speak out against corruption in parliamentary elections
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AQA A Level History Industrialisation Chapter 3
AQA A Level History Industrialisation Chapter 4
AQA A Level History Industrialisation Chapter 5
AQA A Level History Industrialisation Chapter 7
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 23: "The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1…
WH Chapter 23 Vocab
Foley Unit 5
ch 23 history
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Medical genetics terms
Medical genetics conditions
Krebs cycle and link reaction