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AP Human Geography Unit 3
Terms in this set (88)
a group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people
a culture that incorporates a homogeneous population that is typically rural and cohesive in cultural traits.
the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through generations by word of mouth
large culture that incorporates heterogeneous populations, is typically urban, and experiences quick changing traits.
the things a group of people construct, including homes, clothing, sports, dance, and foods.
a material, spatial, and cultural product of human labor
beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit
seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in the response to uncertainty of the modern world.
tight knit neighborhoods within a major city where local cultures have built a world apart to practice their customs
the process through which something (a name, good, idea, or person) becomes an object that can be bought and sold in the world market, when it previously wasn't regarded so.
How quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication
explains how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication
a term referring to a process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place, making it their own.
can occur through a hierarchy of places. The hearth is the point of origin. Large cities to smaller ones (trickles down)
idea spreads from person to person EX) word of mouth
when an exact idea can't be adopted in a certain area (due to cultural barriers, etc.) leading to altering of the idea. It is a stimulus for newer ideas.
when individuals who have adopted the idea move to new places and disseminate it. The hearth loses strength in the idea and the places the individuals move to gain strength in it.
the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
proposed by Derwent Whittlesay. Cultural imprints made over top of each other, each affect the next, have a lasting imprint
coined by George Edward Relph to describe the loss of uniqueness in place in the cultural landscape to the point that one place looks like the next
the idea that cultural borrowing and mixing is happening all over the world. Emphasizes that what happens on one scale is not independent of what happens on another.
people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes. Causes global-local continuum
technology, ecology, demography, and economies that define human behavior
Fred Kniffen researched house types and their diffusion in North America and found that 3 regions have these houses: (1)New England, (2) Mid-Atlantic, and (3) Lower Chesapeake Bay. The diffusion streams created the regions. EX) (1) Saltbox, two-chimney, Cape Cod, Front Wing, and Gable. (2) I-house, Tidewater. (3) Shotgun
buildings use building materials available and reflect social/environmental customs of the people
traditionally sung by the common people of a region. forms part of their culture
a set of sounds and symbols that is used for communication
a published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught language that most technologically advanced societies have.
a variant of a standard language along regional or ethnic liens. Made of differences in: vocab, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and pace.
a geographic boundary in which a particular linguistic feature occurs. Rarely a simple line.
dialects nearest to each other will be most similar. As you go farther apart, dialects become less intelligible.
way of classifying languages at the global scale. The languages have shared by fairly distant origins. Broken into sub-families.
divisions within a language family, the commonalities are more definite and origins more recent. Consists of individual languages with smaller spatial extents and dialects with even smaller spatial extents
set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
a language from the Indo-European family. Spoken by half of the world's people, and includes among others, the Germanic, Romance, and Slavic subfamilies
a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce. Can be one language or a mixture.
when people speaking 2 or more languages are in contact and they combine parts of their languages in a simplified structure and vocabulary EX) the first widely known pidgin language is the Frankish language, a mix of Frank tongue with Italian, Greek, Spanish, and Arabic for trade on eastern Mediterranean with Southern Franks.
a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common.
a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and a vocabulary and has become a native language of a group of people
countries in which everyone speaks the same language EX) Japan, Uruguay, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, and Lesotho
countries in which more than one language is in use EX) US
adopted by countries with linguistic fragmentation to tie the people together. Or in colonies, one that ties them to their colonizer.
a common language of trade and commerce used around the world. EX) like lingua franca
there are more than 7000 languages spoken today that are created by economic, technological, and ideological globalization. EX) more than 1500 languages are spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa
place names. often refer to social progress in the area. May impact how people view the lace. Dominated by 10 themes: descriptive, commendatory, possession, commemorative, associative, incidents, possession, folk, manufactured, mistakes, shift. EX) "Mount Prospect" and "Mount Misery"
a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. EX) Baha'i
worship a singly deity, God or Allah EX) Islam grew in Northern Africa from 11 to 234 million in 1900 to 2010
worship more than one deity, even 1000s EX) Hinduism, Vodum/Voodoo
centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mts., trees, rivers, and boulders. posses spirits and should be revered. EX) Shamanism
actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems and universal appropriateness and appeal. Few in number and of recent origin. EX) Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam
Adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought. Spatially concentrated, except for Judaism. EX) traditional religions in Africa and SA. Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Shintoism
3rd biggest religion, DID NOT originate in Pakistan, given name by Aryans, no founder, based on ancient practices of Indus River Valley city of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, sacred river is the Ganges, and their main god is Brahman. Other gods are expressions of Brahman. Not a polytheistic or monotheistic religion, or even both. Vedas is it's 4 sacred texts. Defined as an ethnic religion to SE Asia.
A soul is reborn and in Hinduism you are moved up and down in the caste system based off your behavior. The goal is to escape reincarnation through union with Brahman. EX) Hinduism
locks people into particular social classes and imposes many restrictions, especially to those in lower castes
created by interaction of Hinduism and Islam. Didn't like worship of idols and caste system in Hinduism. EX) wear turbans and forbid hair-cutting
came from Hinduism as a question to its teachings (caste system). 2 branches: Mahayan (salvation comes by appeal to holy sources of merit) and Theravada (Salvation is personal matter achieved by good behavoir and being monk or nun). EX) Theravada- Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia. Mahayana- Vietnam Korea, Japan, and China
ethnic religion, related to Buddhism, focuses on nature and ancestor worship EX) Japan
traced to older contemporary of Confucius, Lao-Tsu, who published Tao-te-Ching or "Book of Way". EX) China. Avoid competition possession pursuit of knowledge. Evils= war, punishment, takes, and ceremonial ostentation.
philosophy of life. Like Taoism, great impacts of Chinese Life. Confucius was appalled by the poor and suffering and urged them to assert themselves. Said virtues and abilities, not heritage, should determine position in society. Altered by emperors over time
grew out of the beliefs of Jews, a nomadic semetic tribe in SW Asia. Based off teachings of Abraham. In Middle East, N Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Europe, and N and S America. Monotheistic.
single founder (Jesus), split from Judaism, monotheistic, first split: between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox. Emperor Diocletian split empire eventually leading to separate denominations. Last branch- Protestant (came from Catholic)
founded by Muhammad, Qu'ran, Allah, monotheistic, 5 pillars, pilgrimage to Mecca/hajj. EX) Most Muslims are in Indonesia
majority accept rulers who aren't descendants of Muhammad/Ali. EX) many in US and Europe
don't accept rulers who aren't descendants of Muhammad. More centralized hierarchical clergy than Sunni. Imams are the source of knowledge. EX) Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan
community faith in which people follow their shaman (religious leader) . small, isolated religion. EX) Africa, Native America, SE Asia, and E Asia.
the indifference to or rejection of formal religion. EX) 57% of US said religion isn't super important in their lives while 98% of Senegal said the opposite.
Church of the Latter day Saints. Created by Joseph Smith, has similar beliefs to Christianity. Began in NY, then moved to Utah due to persecution.
sacred sites/sacred space
places people infuse with religious meaning (reverence or fear). If infused with reverence, a pilgrimage may be made to the place.
Lakota and Cheyenne or northern Great Plains in US sacred site
Western Wall Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Jews and Christians sacred site
Dome of the Rock
Muslim sacred site
the origins and meanings of the names of religions EX) St. Peter's Basilica- burial site for Catholic tradition
part of the mosque. calls Muslims to pray 5x a day. EX) When Islam first went into N Africa and S Europe, incorporated roman designs, such as the Alhambra Palace (Granada) and Great Mosque of Corboda (Spain)
the pilgrimage to Mecca (one of the 5 pillars of Islam) EX) Many times there have been a lot of deaths due to people trampling each other.
the boundaries between the world's major faiths. subject to potentially divisive cultural forces. EX) several countries in Africa that straddle the Christian- Muslim boundary EX) Israel, Palestine, Nigeria, former Yugoslavia
the boundaries within a single major faith. Divisions between: Catholics and Protestants (especially in N Ireland), Muslim Sunni and Shia
when a community or group is trapped and surrounded by unfriendly population or government. EX) the Gaza strip in Israel where Muslims are surrounded by the Jewish population and government
a portion of a country not connected to the main part physically EX) Alaska
A mass killing of people EX) Holocaust
a mass killing of a specific group of people EX) Serbian campaign for ethnic cleansing of Kosovo Albanians (Muslims) who demanded autonomy.
a government in which religion rules Ex) Taliban
born over perceived breakdown of society's morals and values. hold to religious beliefs. EX) Traditionalism Catholic Movement- preach in Latin and don't recognize the Pope and the Vatican
religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence EX) 9-11, extremist Jews who are for anti-Arabism (Kahane Chai), and Taliban
the legal framework within public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles
Islamic holy way against West, US in particular. Promoted by Taliban in Afghanistan because provided haven for Islamic extremeists EX) 9-11
world's oldest monotheistic religion