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Politics of the United States
Terms in this set (138)
How can citizens directly contribute to a fair criminal justice system?
By serving on a jury.
What accurately describes economic rights in the United States?
Economic rights are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution or Bill of Rights.
What is the "invisible hand" of the free market, as described by Adam Smith?
Which of the following accurately describes the Supreme Court's position on limiting expression?
Individuals can challenge the government if they believe the government's actions violate the 1st amendment, with the government bearing the burden of proof that this is not the case.
What is the Bill of Rights?
A list of individual rights that the national government requires the state governments to protect.
What is the topic of Amendment I?
Religion, speech, assembly, politics.
What is the topic of Amendment II?
Militia and the right to bear arms.
What is the topic of Amendment III?
Quartering of soldiers.
What is the topic of Amendment IV?
Search and seizure.
What is the topic of Amendment V?
Grand jury, self-incrimination, double jeopardy, due process, and eminent domain
What is the topic of Amendment VI?
Criminal court procedures
What is the topic of Amendment VII?
Trial by jury
What is the topic of Amendment VIII?
Cruel and unusual punishment
What is the topic of Amendment IX?
Rights retained by the people
What is the topic of Amendment X?
Reserved powers of the states
In what society is the reciprocity of rights and obligations most necessary?
A society of hundreds of millions living in cities and towns.
Which would not be eligible to be a U. S. citizen by birth?
A person born in the U. S. as the child of a foreign diplomat.
In consideration of reciprocity, which of the following examples is a reasonable limitation on one's rights and freedoms otherwise guaranteed by the constitution?
Someone not being allowed to build a campfire in the forest because they are not in a designated camping area.
What is the most important tool to ensure individuals are able to become effective participants in the political process?
Accurate and timely information.
A law makes it illegal to burn bibles, but not other books, in public parks. How is this not consistent with the guarantees in the first amendment?
It is not content-neutral.
When is a form of media considered obscene?
Most contemporary, average citizens do not find it appropriate.
According to Adam Smith's "invisible hand," what is the best way to enhance national wealth?
When everyone is allowed to seek and pursue their own self-interest.
Who is covered by the Constitution's guarantee to "due process?"
Those accused of a crime will have a fair trial.
Where did the idea of "separation of church and state" come from?
A letter written by Thomas Jefferson.
Who is ready to become a naturalized citizen of the United States?
-has been a permanent resident for the specified period of time
-speaks English and understands civics basics
-has never been convicted of illegal activity
-is willing to take the Oath of Allegiance
What does a writ of habeas corpus do?
Requires the government to explain to the court why a citizen is being held in custody.
A law that prohibits "indecent material" is put into effect. Why is this inconsistent with first amendment guarantees?
It is too vague.
What is civic dialogue?
The contribution of expectations, customs, and ideals as a part of what society values, as manifested by politics of different groups.
"The right to swing my fist ends where the other man's nose begins" exemplifies which civic rule?
Individuals have rights, but also obligations to others in society.
Congress passes a law preventing individuals from engaging in certain forms of speech or expression because it is afraid that the things they say and express may turn out to be illegal. Why would the Supreme Court deem this unconstitutional?
It places prior restraint on expression.
What country/government is likely to be the most pluralistic?
Country A, in which citizens have freedom of association, expression, assembly, and religious exercise.
What social group did the most to promote civic participation during the Civil Rights movement?
What is true of religion at the time of America's founding?
Religion was important to many, so much so that many states had established churches.
What was the purpose of the 15th Amendment?
To guarantee all citizens the right to vote
What part of the Bill of Rights protects the freedom of association?
Country A doesn't have freedom of association. How would democracy work there?
Probably not very well, because like-minded individuals wouldn't be able to gather and petition the government if needed.
What was the purpose of the 14th Amendment?
To provide "equal protection under the law" for former slaves.
What does the Civil Rights Act of 1964 deal with?
Forbids discrimination on the basis of sex, race, religion, or national origin.
How would religion today in America best be described?
Religious belief is widespread, but most are tolerant of others with different beliefs.
What was the purpose of the 13th Amendment?
To abolish slavery.
According to the Founders, what "ingredient" was indispensible for the success of society?
If you lived in the 1640s and wanted to live in a colony that protected freedom of religion, where would you go?
A society in which multiple groups emerge and petition the government is called...
Why are Amendments 13, 14, and 15 so important?
They were changes influenced by civic and political groups, produced by a civic society.
What is a civil society?
A society in which social groups come together freely to petition the government.
What happens after Congress passes a bill and the President signs it into law?
The Supreme Court can still review it and strike it down if deemed unconstitutional.
How many U. S. Senators up for re-election every two years?
One third (1/3)
Which of the following is the most commonly-used route for adopting amendments to the Constitution?
Proposed by 2/3 of both houses of Congress (House of Reps and Senate) and ratified by 3/4 of state legislatures.
What is not one of the informal roles assumed by presidents when they are elected?
Which of the following factors gives the president the most power in the constitutional system?
The constitution's explicit allocation of powers.
Which Founder most strongly advocated for a strong judiciary?
How would one correctly describe the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
Cases can originate in the Supreme Court, but most of their cases come on appeal from lower state and federal courts.
Match the task to the government body:
a) establishes a White House budget
b) reviews constitutionality
c) appoints Supreme Court justices
1. Supreme Court = b
2. U. S. Congress = a
3. President = c
Which of the following accurately describes the way the U. S. House and Senate are organized?
There are 100 members in the Senate and 435 in the House.
Which of the following is true of the legislative process?
Bills are harder to pass than they are to kill.
Why are there eleven amendments discussed in reference to the Bill of Rights?
The 27th Amendment was proposed by James Madison at the time the Bill of Rights was created.
What is required for the proposal of a new amendment?
2/3 of Congress must agree to propose, or 2/3 of all state legislatures can call a constitutional convention.
What are the secretaries of federal government departments collectively called?
The President's cabinet.
What is the time limit on ratification of amendments?
When do bills typically come to the floor for debate in the Senate?
When majority and minority leaders agree to bring them to the floor.
How long is a Supreme Court Justice's term?
They can serve until death, unless they resign voluntarily or are impeached.
What is the least common way to adapt the constitution to modern needs?
With a formal constitutional amendment.
Presidents can be impeached from office due to what?
High crimes and misdemeanors.
Which of the following is not part of the criteria for presidential eligibility?
Having at least 10 years prior political experience.
Bills must be passed in identical form by both the Senate and the House before being sent to the president. Under what circumstances does this most frequently occur?
Two versions of the bill are run through both the Senate and the House simultaneously, and a special Senate-House committee is established to create a compromise version of the bill.
Which of the following is a significant limit on presidential power?
Divided-party control of the national government.
How many presidents (in the U. S.) have been impeached?
Which of the following best describes the Supreme Court's role in the legislative process?
The Court can declare a law unconstitutional after it is passed.
What is the main purpose of Amendments 13, 14, and 15?
To create greater equality for African Americans.
What term is used for the gradual application of the Bill of Rights to the states?
Which of the following is a valid selective incorporation controversy?
Whether or not the state government can limit speech and expression.
Which of the following best captures the way the Free Exercise clause of the constitution is interpreted by the Supreme Court?
Citizens are free to believe any religious doctrine, but not necessarily to practice it.
A case comes before the Supreme Court challenging a congressional ban on the religious practice of animal sacrifice. How would a judge vote using a "strict textual interpretation" approach?
They would vote to overturn the ban.
What was the issue in the Marbury v Madison case?
Who (president of Supreme Court) would decide what is unconstitutional (or otherwise).
Which of the following cases had the most enduring impact on the separation of powers?
Marbury v Madison
Where was the term "affirmative action" first used?
In an executive order.
Match the Supreme Court cases to their rulings:
a) Plessy v Ferguson
b) Gideon v Wainright
c) Brown v Board of Education
d) Regents of the University of California v Bakke
1. Overturned the decision made in Plessy v Fergusson= c
2. Declared that a white student had been unfairly denied admission to med. school because of affirmative action policies= d
3. Declared that a defendant must have a competent attorney to receive due process of law=b
4. Asserted that separate institutions could be equal= a
A state brings a case to the Supreme Court arguing that the federal government has overstepped its constitutional bounds. Which of the following cases is this most similar to?
McCulloch v Maryland
The "strict scrutiny" standard invalidated certain affirmative action policies whose focus was not narrow enough.
Which case required states to end segregation with "all due haste?"
Affirmative action was intended by Lyndon Johnson to ensure that applicants are employed and treated without regard to race, creed, color or nationality.
Which of the following cases best shows the willingness of the court to protect religious belief, but not necessarily religious practice?
Reynolds v United States, in which a Mormon argued that prohibiting polygamy violated free exercise rights.
Affirmative action is only for employment purposes.
Which case required police officers to inform people of their right to an attorney when arrested?
Miranda v Arizona
A bill is passed by Congress and the President but has not been implemented yet. If people petition the Supreme Court about its unconstitutionality now, what will the Court do?
Refuse to hear their case because there is no real case/controversy yet.
The 14th Amendment is violated in cases where men are favored over women and vice/versa.
Which case found that formal slaves did not have the same legal rights as citizens?
Dred Scott v Sandford.
The case of President Clinton and his relationship with Monica Lewinsky is an example of immunity in regard to 5th Amendment rights.
You feel that the most important constitutional principles are the separation of powers and checks & balances. Which Supreme Court case do you most appreciate?
Marbury v Madison
The Supreme Court strives to protect speech. As such, it is worried about "chilling effects." The violation of which of the following is least likely to produce "chilling effects?"
If a person was not read their "Miranda rights," confessed to police, and was eventually convicted of a crime based on their confession, what part of due process would have been violated?
Protection against self-incrimination.
Which case overturned the Court's previous decision that separate institutions for blacks and whites could be "equal?"
Brown v Board of Education
Which of the following is one of the most common and practical definitions of a political party?
A team of political office seekers.
What are the major political parties in America today?
Republican and Democratic parties.
What change in presidential elections was made by the 12th Amendment?
The president and vice-president no longer ran as opponents, but as a team.
Which of the following is necessary for a public opinion poll to accurately represent the population?
Interview a random sample.
How did the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 change campaign finance in the U. S.?
It banned unlimited contributions to political parties from individuals.
How did the Founders ensure that political representatives would reflect public opinion?
They provided for regularly-scheduled elections so voters could pass judgment on their representatives.
What is the name given to a law that is written and passed by the legislature but is given final approval by voters?
Who was legally allowed to vote when the Constitution was ratified?
Land-owning white men.
Why must a census be taken every 10 years?
To know how many citizens live in each state, so election district boundary lines can be drawn.
If you are invited to participate in the process of redistricting, who invited you?
A member of the state legislature.
Which of the following mechanisms comes closest to full realization of "direct democracy?"
Which of the following is true of political parties in America?
Their main function is to elect people to office.
Which individual did not win the majority of the electoral votes but was chosen by the House of Representatives to be president?
Which of the following is true of U. S. presidential elections?
Candidates are not assured a win without the majority of Electoral College votes.
IF you are a campaign manager for someone running for Congress in a major city, where will you spend most of your money?
Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution calls for an "actual enumeration" of the nation's population. What is that?
An individual count of the U. S. population.
Which of the following is true of recall elections in America?
If voters decide that an elected official is not performing as they expected, they can "recall" the individual.
A group in your community starts a petition to change a government policy in the area. Ig the petition gets enough signatures, what could happen next?
How many electoral votes does each state have?
As many as the sum of its U. S. senators and representatives.
The Founders preferred a government of elite representatives to "refine" the public's interest. Which of the following would the founders disagree with most?
"Gerrymandering" was name after who?
The election of 1800 exposed what problems in the presidential electoral system?
It was not wise to make the "winner" (the president) and the "loser" (the vice-president) work together, as it would be a constant source of contention for them.
Naturally, how many political parties are there in the United States?
There are naturally two major political parties in the U. S.
Which of the following poll questions is most likely to fall prey to "social desirability effects?"
"Would you be upset if a Hispanic family moved into the house next door to you?"
Which of the following is true of the McCulloch v Maryland case?
The state (Maryland) sued that national government based on claims that the national government had overstepped its constitutional bounds.
You are interested in fully understanding how your local schools are funded, Which of the following taxes will be most important to understand?
What are the documents that establish the structures and functions of city governments called?
What are local governments legally created by?
Congress has the power to "coin Money and regulate the value thereof." What is this an example of?
An express power.
The Constitution defines some limits on the powers of states. Which of the following state actions is permitted by the Constitution?
Making laws that are more stringent than those of the federal government.
Which of the following isn't a shared power between national and state governments?
The power to coin money for the benefit of economic trade.
What does the Supremacy Clause (Article VI) of the Constitution suggest?
When state and federal power conflict, the federal government's decision "wins"
What is it called when powers are shared between state and federal governments?
A federal system
Which of the following tools would be most effective in helping an interest group set the public policy agenda to increase defense spending?
Conducting a media campaign to inform citizens and politicians.
Lobbyists are least involved in which part of the policy process?
You are a defendant in federal court. Which of the following is most likely to be the location of your initial trial?
Federal District Court
What did Roosevelt's court-packing plan show?
The limits on presidential power caused by the separation of powers.
Teddy Roosevelt said the president's greatest power is access to the "bully pulpit." Which of the following skills would be necessary to effectively use the "bully pulpit?"
The ability to convince the public to support their policy preferences.
In which system of government is it hardest to obtain party unity, and, hence, party support, of governmental decisions?
American system (as opposed to parliamentary system)
What is the main difference between the American and Parliamentary systems?
Parliamentary systems tend to assign seats proportionally.
You need an example of a confederation to present to your class in school. Which of the following is your best choice?
America from 1776-1789
Which of the following government systems encourages the most people to participate in the political system?
In which of these systems is tyranny most likely to arise?
A unitary system (like Great Britain)
Hapan formed a parliamentary system in the mid-1800s, yet it was classified as tyrannical. Why?
Japan still had an emperor who effectively ran the country.
Which of the following best describes education in a communist economy?
Much like health care, schools are owned by society, and teachers work for society.
According to research on the factors that sustain democracy, which of the following is true?
The attitudes and habits of the citizens are as important as any other factors.
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