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band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. May form in muscles & internal organs as the result of injury or surgery

muscle atrophy

weakness & wastin away of muscle tissue; may be caused by pathology or disuse of the muscle over a long period of time


muscle tenderness or pain


degeneration (breaking down) of muscle tissue


inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles


chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterizd by muscle weakness & atrophy


abnormal softening of muscle tissue


rupture of a muscle


abnormal hardening of the muscle


protrusion of a part or structure trough the tissues normally containing it


protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia


lack of normal muscle tone


condition of abnormal muscle tone


condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles w/ an increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching


condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles w/ decreased resistance of muscle to passive stretching


delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction (similar to a cramp)


inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement


aka-partial ataxial; difficulty in controlling voluntary movement


abnormal shortening of muscle tissues, making the muscle resistant to stretching

intermittent claudication

complex of symptoms including cramp-like pain of the leg muscles caused by poor circulation. It may indicate a larger CV problem


aka cramp; sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles

spasmodic torticollis

aka wryneck; stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head towards the affected side


extreme slowness of movement


distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm


aka hyperactivity; abnormally increased motor function or activity


abnormally decreased motor function or activity

tardive dyskinesia

late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs


spasm or twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that may occur normally as a person is falling asleep


aka hiccups; myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the hiccup sound w/ each spasm;


muscle weakness from any cause

Myasthenia Gravis

aka MG; chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness; affect muscles that control eye movement, eyelids, chewing, swallowing, coughing & facial expression

Muscular Dystrophy

group of inherited muscle disorders that cuase muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy

appears from two to six years of age & progresses slowly. Survival rare beyond the late twenties

Becker's Muscular Dystrophy

less severe illness and doe snot appear until early adolescence or adulthood; survival middle to late adulthood

Fibromyalgia Syndrome

chronic disorder of unknown cause, characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points and fatigae; aka FMS; is not progressive & is not crippling

Tender Points

abnormal localized areas of soreness; are important diagnostic indicators of FMS; these points occur @ predictable locations @ the base of the neck, along th backgbone, in front of the hip & elbow & @ the rear of the knee and shoulder.

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