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37 terms

Diseases of the Muscle

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adhesion
band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. May form in muscles & internal organs as the result of injury or surgery
muscle atrophy
weakness & wastin away of muscle tissue; may be caused by pathology or disuse of the muscle over a long period of time
myalgia
muscle tenderness or pain
myolysis
degeneration (breaking down) of muscle tissue
myositis
inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles
polymyositis
chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterizd by muscle weakness & atrophy
myomalacia
abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myorrhexis
rupture of a muscle
myosclerosis
abnormal hardening of the muscle
hernia
protrusion of a part or structure trough the tissues normally containing it
myocele
protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia
atonic
lack of normal muscle tone
dystonia
condition of abnormal muscle tone
hypertonia
condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles w/ an increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching
hypotonia
condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles w/ decreased resistance of muscle to passive stretching
myotonia
delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction (similar to a cramp)
ataxia
inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement
dystaxia
aka-partial ataxial; difficulty in controlling voluntary movement
contracture
abnormal shortening of muscle tissues, making the muscle resistant to stretching
intermittent claudication
complex of symptoms including cramp-like pain of the leg muscles caused by poor circulation. It may indicate a larger CV problem
spasm
aka cramp; sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles
spasmodic torticollis
aka wryneck; stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head towards the affected side
bradykinesia
extreme slowness of movement
dyskinesia
distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm
hyperkinesia
aka hyperactivity; abnormally increased motor function or activity
hypokinesia
abnormally decreased motor function or activity
tardive dyskinesia
late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs
myoclonus
spasm or twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles
nocturnal myoclonus
jerking of the limbs that may occur normally as a person is falling asleep
singultus
aka hiccups; myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the hiccup sound w/ each spasm;
myasthenia
muscle weakness from any cause
Myasthenia Gravis
aka MG; chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness; affect muscles that control eye movement, eyelids, chewing, swallowing, coughing & facial expression
Muscular Dystrophy
group of inherited muscle disorders that cuase muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
appears from two to six years of age & progresses slowly. Survival rare beyond the late twenties
Becker's Muscular Dystrophy
less severe illness and doe snot appear until early adolescence or adulthood; survival middle to late adulthood
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
chronic disorder of unknown cause, characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points and fatigae; aka FMS; is not progressive & is not crippling
Tender Points
abnormal localized areas of soreness; are important diagnostic indicators of FMS; these points occur @ predictable locations @ the base of the neck, along th backgbone, in front of the hip & elbow & @ the rear of the knee and shoulder.