S.S. Chapter 2 Native Americans Grade 5
S.S. Chapter 2 Native Americans Grade 5
Terms in this set (46)
Who were the first people to arrive in North America 1,000's of years ago?
How did the first people arrive in North America?
Scientist are not sure... Theories-
1. Came from Asia about 30,000 years ago by walking across the land bridge Beringia that connected Asia and North America. (This land used to be exposed because water was trapped in glaciers which lowered the water level. 2. Or maybe they migrated by boat.
Why did they migrate to North America?
They were hunters so they followed buffalo, mammoths, and mastadons across Beringia for food, clothing, and shelter. These first Americans were called Native Americans or American Indians.
Why did may of the animals start to disappear after they moved to Central America and South America?
The animals went searching for food but many of the huge animals couldn't adapt to the warm climate.
How did the Native Americans adapt to the loss of the big animals?
1.They started hunting smaller animals.
2. Some fished.
3. Others began to gather and eat roots and seeds of plants.
(They became hunters and gatherers.)
Why were the Native Americans able to stop migrating as much?
They found that if they planted the seeds, they could grow new crops and make their own food. This meant that they could settle in one place- not wander or migrate.
How did the Native Americans start to develop their own culture?
They farmed which made enough food for all the people in the group. Others made pottery, weaves, and built. Populations grew and formed tribes that shared the same language, land, and leaders.
How do we know what happened in the past?
Archeologists (scientist who study artifacts) found many artifacts (tools, weapons, pottery) from long ago.
Olmec Civiliation (1500B.C. to 300 A.D.)
1. Ruled most of what is now Southern Mexico.
2. Used rivers to travel and trade.
3. Created a system of writing, counting, developed the 365 day calendar.
4. Oldest Olmec city is San Lorenzo. Located by a river.
Why do they call the Olmec civilization the "mother culture?"
They influenced many other cultures after them.
Mayan Civilization (300A.D. to 900A.D.)
1.Ruled in what is now Southern Mexico and Central America.
2. Influenced by Olmec traditions.
3. Built cities out of stone and earth which still stand.
4. Tikal was the largest city with 100,000 people
5. City of Copan was the center of learning and art.
What are some things the Mayan Civilization discovered or invented?
1. Wrote with pictures and symbols called hieroglyphs.
2. Developed a counting system that included zero.
3. Studied the sun, moon, and stars to develop an accurate calendar.
4. Developed social class with religious leaders being at the top, and the people were rule by powerful kings.
The Mound Builders
1. These societies build large earth mounds used for burying their people or leaders with tools, arrowheads, teeth, cloth, and pottery.
2. Earliest Mound Builders were the Adena near Ohio River Valley.
3. Largest mound building civilization were the Mississippians in the cities of Spiro and Cahokia.
The Ancient Puebloans
1. They lived in houses with many levels built into the sides of canyons.
2. Spanish called them pueblos which means "village"
What are the Four major groups of Indians in North America before Europeans arrived?
1. Eastern Woodland Indians
2. Plains Indians
3. Southwest and West Indians
4. Pacific Northwest and Arctic Indians.
Where did the Eastern Woodland Indians live?
The lived in forests from the east coast to the Mississippi River. They built villages along the rivers that flow through the forests.
How did the Eastern Woodland Indians use their trees?
1. They all shared the trees.
2. Used to make canoes, shelters, tools, weapons.
3. Trees gave them food- cherries, plums.
How did the Eastern Woodland Indians hunt, gather, and farm?
1. In the northeast, the soil was rocky and it was colder so they were hunters and gatherers but did little farming.
2. In the southeast, the soil was more fertile and climate was better for farming.
How did the Eastern Woodland Indians use Division of Labor?
1. In the Northeast, the MEN hunted animals, fished and made tools and weapons. The WOMEN made food, clothes and shoes out of the skins. CHILDREN gathered fruit, nuts, and berries. 2. In the Southeast, MEN cleared land for planting. WOMEN AND CHILDREN did the planting and harvesting. Children also helped gather.
What are the two main groups of Eastern Woodland Indians and what was used to determine how they were grouped?
They were grouped by the language they spoke.
Who were the Iroquois Indians? (Eastern Woodland Indians)
1. Five Nations- Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca. They battled each other for hunting areas. Years later they united and worked together.
2. They became known as the Iroquois League which helped resolve conflicts. They acted as a Confederation.
What type of homes did the Iroquois Indians live in and what crops did they grow?
1. Lived Inland away from the coast.
2.Made shelters called Longhouses out of tree poles and bark. Big enough for 8-10 families or 50 people.
3. Villages built on steep hills with walls for protection.
4. Grew corn, beans, squash.
5. Used Wampum to show events, trade, and tell stories.
Who were the Algonquian Indians? (Eastern Woodland Indians.)
1. Lived on the Coastal Plain and around the Great Lakes.
2. Made up of many groups- Wampanoag & Powhatan
3. Made clothes and moccasins from deerskins.
4. Had leaders who governed more than one village.
What type of homes did the Algonquian Indians live in and what was their main food source?
1. Shelters were called Wigwams- small rounded shelters made out of tree poles, bark, and skins- for 1 family.
2. Fish was their main food source.
1. Lived on the Interior Plains between the Mississippi River & Rocky Mountains.
2. They had different customs and kinds of governments
How did Plains Indians use Buffalo for food, shelter, clothing, tools, and utensils?
1. Skin for clothes and moccassins,
2. Meat for food
Stomachs for pouches and bags for carrying water.
3. Made hair into cords.
4. Bones and horns for tools
5. Hooves for glue
6. Tendons and ligaments for bows.
Plains Indians- Central Plains
1. Were hunters, gatherers, and farmers.
2. Lived in shelters called lodges made of earth with a hole in the center for a fireplace.
3. They grew corn and had a corn harvest ceremony
Plains Indians- Great Plains
1. Wood was scarce. They were nomadic.
2. Couldn't farm because the land was too dry.
3. They lived in tepees.
4. Used wooded poles to make a carrier called a travois.
1. Lived on deserts and plateaus. Ex- Hopi, Zuni, Navajo
2. Hot summers, cold winters, little or no rain.
3. Pueblos and Navajo depended on trade for other goods.
4. They grew corn, beans, squash, cotton.
5. They irrigated the land by collecting water and storing the surplus (extra)
Describe what the Southwest Indians home looked like.
1. Hopi and Zuni built pueblos out of stones and mud. Others used Adobe- sun-dried bricks of clay and straw.
2. Navajo lived in hogans- Cone shaped shelters made of mud or adobe. Hogans were far apart.
1. Lived in deserts, valleys, forests and coast form Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
2. Food and Shelter depended on where they lived.
3. They formed Trade Networks- one group traded with another nearby group. The second group traded with a third group that lived farther away.
Pacific Northwest Indians
1.Trees and Wood
2. Lived between coast ranges and pacific ocean along a narrow strip of land.
3. Mild temperatures, rain, fertile soil, thick forests.
4. Fished, hunted, gathered. Whale supplied food and fat. Fat was melted to make oil for lamps.
5. Lived in Longhouses- Made from large trees. All clan lived in the same longhouse.
Pacific Northwest Indians-2
6. Made pots, bowls, utensils, and carved masks from the strong wood.
7. Believed animals were very important and used animal as a symbol- totem
8. Trade was important
1. No trees
2. Lived in Alaska and northernmost Canada
3. Hunted fox, polar bears, aribou
4. Used kayaks to hunt seals, walruses, whale
5. Families would share seal meat.
6. With no trees, some lived in Igloos- homes made of ice
Others lived in tents of animal skin or sod houses.
Land Bridge Theory
Native Americans probably walked across from Asia to North America by way of the Bering Strait. Water was trapped in glaciers which lowered the water level and the land below was exposed. This land bridge from Asia to North America is called Beringia.
What developments did the Olmec and Mayan Civilization do and how were they alike and different?
OLMEC-1. Created a system of writing and counting.
2. developed a 365 day calendar
MAYAN- 1. Developed a system of writing using pictures and symbols called hieroglyphs. 2. Developed a counting system that included zero. 3. Studied the sun, moon, and stars and developed and accurate calendar.
What resources were important to each Indian group?
1. Eastern Woodlands- Trees for canoes, shelters, tools, weapons, cherries, plums, nuts.
2. Plains Indians- Buffalo for good, shelter, clothing, tools, and utensils
3. Southwest and West Indians-Main foods of corn, beans, squash
4.Pacific and Northwest Indians- Pacific-Salmon and whales, plants, and nuts. Arctic-Fox, polar bears, caribou, seal meat.
What kind of shelter did each group live in?
Longhouse- Iroquois (Eastern Woodland Indians)
Hogans- Navajo (Southwest and West Indians)
Teepees- Great Plains Indians (Plains Indians)
Wigwam- Algonquian (Eastern Woodland Indians)
Lodges- Central Plains Indians (Plains Indians)
Pueblos- Hopi and Zuni Indians (Southwest and west)
Igloos- Arctic Indians
Longhouse (Iroquois/Eastern Woodland)
Shelters made out of tree poles and bark. Looks like a long house.
Hogan (Navajo- Southwest and West)
Cone shaped shelter made of mud or adobe.
Teepee (Great Plains)
Shelter made from limbs of willow, tied at the top, and covered with animal hide.
Lodges (Central Plains Indians)
Shelters made of earth with a hole in the center of the roof. In the center is a fireplace. Some had roofs covered with sod.
Wigwam (Algonquian/Eastern Woodland)
Small, rounded shelters made out of tree poles, bark, and skins.
Pueblos (Hopi and Zuni/Southwest Indian)
Shelters made out of stone and mud built into the sides of cliffs.
Why was the Iroquois League Formed?
It was formed by the five nations in order to resolve conflict among people or groups.
Why was it important for the Native Americans in the Arctic to band together?
To share seal meat.