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Chapter 5- The Skeletal System

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What are the functions of the skeletal system?
support, protection, movement, storage
What are the categories of bones based on shape? Know examples of each.
Long Bones: femur, humerus
Short Bones: carpals, tarsals
Flat Bones: skull, ribs, sternum
Irregular: vertebrae, hip
How is the periosteum connected to the bone?
By sharpey's fibers
What is the function of red bone marrow? Yellow bone marrow?
Red bone marrow- blood cell formation
Yellow bone marrow- stores fat
What is an epiphyseal plate and what does its presence indicate?
it is a growth plate, it indicates that bones are still growing
What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone?
Compact bone is dense and smooth. Spongy bone is small needle like pieces of bone, many open spaces
What is a crest? A ramus?
Crest- narrow ridge of bone. Ramus- armlike bar bone
What is found in the central canal of bone tissue?
blood vessels and nerves
What are lacunae?
cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes), arranged in concentric ring
What is the embryonic skeleton made of?
hyaline cartilage
What hormones control bone growth and what are the two types of cells involved in remodeling?
Growth and sex hormones. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
What are the four stages in the healing of a fracture?
1) hematoma is formed
2) break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus
3) fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus (spongy bone)
4) bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
What is the axial skeleton?
forms the longitudinal part of the body, divided into three parts: skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
What are the sutures of the skull and what bones do they connect?
Coronal suture- where the frontal bone meets the parietal bone
Saggital suture- where the two parietal bones meet
Squamous suture- where the temporal bone meet the parietal bone
Lambdoid suture- occipital to parietal bone
In what bone is the foramen magnum?
Occipital bone
What is unique about the about the hyoid bone?
the only bone that does not articulate with another bone
Where is the mastoid process?
external acoustic meatus
What are the three types of vertebrae and how many of each are there?
Cervical:7 Thoracic: 12 Lumbar:5
What is the correct order of ribs from top to bottom?
True ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
How many of each kind of ribs are there?
True ribs: 7 False ribs: 5 Floating ribs: 2
What are the differences between the male pelvis and female pelvis?
1) Female inlet is wider
2) Female bones are lighter and thinner
3) Female ilium flares more on the side
4) Female ischial spine is shorter
5) Female pubic arch is greater than 90 degrees, men are less than 90 degree
What are the two largest bones of the feet?
calcaneus, talus
What are the four features of the synovial joint?
1) articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones
2) joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule
3) have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid
4) ligaments reinforce the joint
What are examples of cartilaginous joints and fibrous joints?
Cartilaginous joints: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage
Fibrous joints- short fibers, longer fibers, periodental fibers
What is the largest bone in the coxal bone?
ilium
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation
What is an osteon and what does it contain?
It is a unit of bone, it contains central canal and matrix rings
What is another name for the scapula? tibia?
Scapula- shoulder blade
Tibia- shin bone
What is costal cartilage?
attaches the true and false ribs to the sternum
What are the different types of fractures?
Comminuted- bone breaks into many fragments
Compression- bone is crushed
Depressed- broken bone portion is pressed inward
Impacted- broken bone ends are forced into each other
Spiral- excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
Greenstick- bone breaks incompletely
Closed fracture? Open fracture?
break that does not penetrate the skin. broken bone penetrates through the skin
What are the classification of joints based on amount of movement?
Synarthroses- immovable
Ampiarthroses- slightly movable
Diarthroses- freely movable
List and explain the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.
A hematoma forms- blood vessels are ruptured when the bone breaks. As a result, a blood filled swelling a hematoma forms.
A fibrocartilage callus forms- it splints the broken bone to form a callus
The bony callus forms- as more osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate into the area and multiply, the fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced by the bony callus made of spongy bone
Bone remodeling occurs- the bony callus is remodeled in response to the mechanical stresses placed on it, so that is forms a strong permanent patch at the fracture site
Discuss the two factors that cause bone remodeling throughout life.
Calcium levels in blood determine when remodeling takes place, pull of gravity determines where remodeling will take place
Explain the five functions of the skeletal system.
Support- bones form the internal framework of the body and cradles its soft organs
Protection- bones protect soft organs
Movement- skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers, to move the body and its parts
Storage- fat is stored in the internal (marrow) cavities of bones. Bone itself serves as a storehouse for minerals
Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of certain bones