AP Human Geography Unit 4
Terms in this set (54)
Organization of American States
1962 (OAS) international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas (p. 824)
Functional Boundry Dispute
In political geography, a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 alliance of nations that agreed to band together in the event of war and to support and protect each nation involved
a sovereign state inhabited by a relatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
Figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; more broadly, the art of representation by pictures or images, which may or may not have a symbolic as well as an apparent or superficial meaning
identification with and devotion to one's nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
A state that encompasses a very small land area
statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly
That portion of a country adjacent to its boundaries and fronting another political unit.
A state whose territory contains isolated parts, separated and discontinuous.
Mackinder's Heartland Theory
A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mackinder further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.
Surrounded by land on all sides
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.
Is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life. A global common contains an infinite potential with regard to the understanding and advancement of the biology and society of all life. (Forests, oceans, land mass and cultural identity)
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
Geometric Political Boundry
Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) as a straight line or an arc.
(aka Organic Theory/ Ratzel's Theory) Theory that states are living organisms that hunger for land and, like organisms, want to grow larger by acquiring more nourishment in the form of land..
the state's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state. An example would be Brasília.
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.
supranational organization of nearly 25 member-states in Europe that have integrated for improved economic and political cooperation.
a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Physical/ Natural Political Boundary
A boundry created by a physical feature.
A subdivision of human geography focused on the natural and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface.
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Raison d' etre
The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".
The assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts.
The stronger connection to one's region than to one's country
They no longer exist as international boundaries.
bring together to parts of a country under one government (ex: Germany)
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
The idea that all people can have independence and make up their own government. This was one of Wilson's fourteen points.
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
Sociopolitical organization based on a central, autonomous government and socioeconomic stratification - a division of society into classes. Examples - Modern U.S., Canada, and Egypt.
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
The right to vote.
A political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape. Usually ignores pre-existing cultural-spatial patterns, such as the border that now divides North and South Korea.
A political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the major elements of the cultural landscape through which it passes.
Refers to efforts by three or more states to forge associations for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals.
Any dispute over land ownership
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohension and political viability.
a fundamental aspect of human behavior and refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
United Nations Convention On the Law of the Sea
A code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles (22km) from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide (370-km-wide) exclusive economic zones.
Central government has the power. (Example: Russia) An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Group of 50 nations that was formed in 1945 to help prevent world conflicts and protect human rights
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
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