158 terms

Unit 2 - Global Climate - Vulnerability and Resilience

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20 by 2020
The EU has pledged to cut it's emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to the emissions in 1990
Arctic Ice retreat and feedback mechanisms
Climate change is warming the planet, causing ice to melt in the Arctic, which means a loss in habitat. This causes positive feedback, as when the ice melts, there is less albedo effect (water is darker than ice), and so the world keeps getting warmer
Donald Trump
The current president of the U.S, who pulled out of the COP21 agreement and is a climate change denier
Carbon storage
CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage(or Sequestration) is when CO2 is separated from power station emissions, it's then compressed, transported and stored underground(usually in permeable rocks).
Fossil Fuel Burning as a source of carbon
Combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2, which is a greenhouse gas and amplifies the enhanced greenhouse effect that is helping to cause climate change
Goldilocks Planet
A goldilocks planet is a planet which falls within the habitable zone of a start (eg. Earth). Not too close as it would be to hot and not to far as it would be to cold to sustain life.
Geo-Engineering
The deliberate large scale manipulation of the planetary envirnoment in order to counteract anthropogenic climate change. Eg. Solar radiation management (space based mirrors, putting aerosols in the stratosphere to create global dimming and cloud and surface brightening to increase albedo). Also, projects such as carbon storage and capture (storing carbon waste) are examples of geo-engineering to counteract climate change
Biosphere
Biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
Crop Yields
Crop yields will decrease in the future, due to extreme weather conditions (drought, tropical storms, rising temperatures....)
Greenwash
When green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organization's products, aims or policies are environmentally friendly, when they really aren't.
Adaptation
Acts to reduce the severity or intensity of climate change (already being experienced) by changing land use, upgrading buildings and infrastructure and setting up education and health programmes to reduce a population's vulnerability.
800,000 years of climate evidence
800'000 years, is how far back we are able to collect data and analyse the climate of our planet. This is doable due to Antarctic ice-core, capturing the CO2 back to 800'000 years ago.
Climate Migrants
People who are forced to flee to due sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment. (sea level rise, extreme weather events, drought etc.)
1997-Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol was a legally binding agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It was signed by all parties present save Australia and the USA
Greenhouse Gases
Any gas that absorbs and emits radiation in the thermal infrared range. (e.g. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, sulphur dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, water vapour and ozone)
Sources of greenhouse gases include:
Transport (cars and planes)
Animals (cow release large amounts of methane)
Burning fossils fuels (especially oil and coal)
Melting Permafrost (methane is released when permafrost melts)
Industry
Domestic use (wood fires)
Atmospheric Energy Budget
The Earth's Energy budget accounts for the balance between the amount of energy the earth receives from the sun and the energy that earth radiates back into space
EPICA Core
The European Project for Ice Coring in Antartica. It is a multinational European for deep ice core drilling in Antartica. Its main goal is to obtain full documentation <span>climatic and atmospheric record archived in Antarctic ice by drilling and analyzing two ice cores and comparing these with their Greenland counterparts
1992 Earth Summit, Rio
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) came together to discuss their findings on climate change. They then got 190 countries to sign a treaty stating that the world community should stabilize the amount of greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere before the we create differences in the world's climate.
Agriculture as a source of carbon
Agriculture is the source of 1/3 of carbon emissions:
Land clearing/deforestation to grow crops/animal land (plants liberating their carbon stock + slash/burn)
Unclean energy used to pump water for irrigation
Nitrogen based fertilizers: production made using oil
Pollution from agricultural machinery
Pollution from food processing and transportation
Globalization and offshoring carbon emissions
When countries appear like they do not have a big contribution to GHG emissions within their own land, but own companies in other parts of the world (due to cheap labour, strategy etc..) emitting a lot of GHG.
Example: Germany itself only 2% of global GHG emissions, but with its offshoring companies, Germany actually contributes to about 16% of global GHG emissions.
CO2
Aka carbon dioxide, is a greenhouse gas released naturally. However since the industrial revolution, emissions have grown by about 39%, reaching levels not seen in 3 million years. The main reasons of CO2 emissions are fossil fuel combustion (around 87% of total emissions), land use changes like deforestation (around 9%) and industrial processes (around 4%). It contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect, which results in global warming. CO2 concentration can be monitored and modelled.
Cap and Trade
Each country / company has a fixed amount of carbon emissions which is referred to as a cap / limit. The cap / limit is measured in credits that the a company is assigned, if the company emits less then the amount that they have assigned they are able to sell the extra credits to other companies who either wants to emit more carbon or has emitted to much. This creates a trading between companies with carbon (each credit allows a company to emit one metric tonne of carbon)
Carbon Offsetting
Carbon offsetting involves the reduction of emissions in one part of you're life to make up for the emissions created in another part. "A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or Greenhouse gas made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere."
Brandalism
An internationally recognized initiative/company which fights consumerism and false portrayal from strong corporations onto the public. Can be defined as the deliberate defacement of corporate iconography, generally for purposes of protest, parody, or social commentary.
Extreme Weather
Climate change is has resulted in temperatures rising and, many scientists believe, in an increased severity of floods, droughts, fires, storms/hurricanes/tornadoes... This is often labelled as extreme weather. Although scientists cannot be 100% sure that these occurrences are linked and that this isn't just a natural change in the weather pattern, they deem the correlations they are seeing enough to convince them.
Coral Bleaching and loss
Due to global climate change the temperature of sea water is rising. This increase in temperature is causing coral bleaching: warmer temperatures cause stress to the corals, the corals then eject their zooxanthellae, this causes the corals lose their color (turn white) because the coral's exoskeleton was originally transparent and zooxanthellae provide colour (symbiotic relationship). Since the corals loose their color they are no longer able to photosynthesis and therefore die.
Anthropocene
Represents a segment of the earth's timeline and includes industrialisation of agriculture, urbanisation of half of worlds population and the rise of fossil fuels as an energy source. Also known as the age of humans
Cryosphere
Frozen part of the the earth. For example, one part of it is the planets ice found in arctic and antarctic.
Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect is the process by which the earths temperature increases due to heat being trapped in our atmosphere. This effect heats the planet more than it would if there was direct heating from the sun. Energy from the sun reaches the surface via short wave radiation and some heat is absorbed and then the rest is bounced off as long wave radiation. This energy which has been bounced off, is then trapped inside the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases and this heats the earths temperature
Atmosphere
is made up of four layers: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and the Thermosphere. As well as the ozone layers which plays an important role in the earths atmosphere. The atmosphere contains a thin layer of gases such as nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide, which surrounds the earth. Protecting us from the suns radiation including objects flying through space such meteoroids
2009 Copenhagen-Green fund for poor countries
In 2009 at COP 15, there were high hopes that a treaty would be finally signed, this unfortunately didn't happen. However more economically developed countries set aside a "green fund" for to aid less economically developed countries to meet their goals.
Food Insecurity
The state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food. Over 800 million people live in constant hunger or food insecurity. Climate change has lead these numbers to increase a lot as, when a people's agriculture, water supply and general way of life is threatened by a changing climate, so is their food security.
CFC's
Chlorofluorocarbons are gases that create holes in the ozone layer and last in the atmosphere for 100+ years. They used to be used in aerosols until in 1987 they were banned in the Montreal protocol. The only current use of CFC's is in refrigerators and freezers.
Negative feedback Mechanisms
Is something which maintains an equilibrium (keeps things in check). A theoretical example in the context of climate change would be: warmer temperatures causes ice to melt, leading to more water being evaporated, which then leads to more clouds forming and therefore more reflected light, a cooler atmosphere and more ice formation. This doesn't seem to work in practice though!
Mesosphere
The region in the atmosphere above the Stratosphere and below the Thermosphere, it is located 50 to 80 km above sea level. Coldest part of the atmosphere with the strongest winds
Ocean acidification
The ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
NEXUS
A means of connection; tie; link
Thermosphere
Is the layer of atmosphere furthest from earth, It is the highest level of atmosphere going from 80km + from earth. This layer of atmosphere is very thin in terms of gas density, and only makes up 0.001% of the atmospheres total mass. The sun warms the layer, and its temperatures exceed 200 degrees Celcius, often reaching 1000 degrees
Solar radiation management (SRM)
Is an example of climate engineering and seeks to reduce global warming by reflecting sunlight. Proposed methods include pace- based aerosols, stratospheric aerosols, cloud brightening and surface brightening to try an increase the planetary albedo
Human Enhanced Greenhouse effect
The Greenhouse effect is essentially what keeps the earth warm. The atmosphere reflects the suns rays back to earth. The enhanced human greenhouse effect is basically humans increasing various emissions, increasing greenhouse gases, warming the planet even more. Increased greenhouse gases, is the result of human activity, such as industrialization
Koch Brothers
Owners of the second largest privately owned business in America, Koch Industries, owning oil refineries and pipelines. They have been paying scientists to publish evidence against Climate Change and the fact that humans have an effect on it. They fund groups (e.g woman/students/church groups) to relay their message, as well as creating groups of companies to work against Climate Change.
Northwest passage/Northern sea Route
The Northwest Passage is a series of possible shipping routes connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Canadian Arctic. The Northeast Passage (also known as the Northern Sea Route) is any shipping route between Europe and Asia along the northern shores of Russia.
Shifting Biomes
Habitats will move north or south as they adapt to warmer weather. An example of this is there will be less tundra in Russia and more forest due to the warmer climate. This has already happened extensively in the North. A lot of vegetation has been moving towards the poles and up mountains where the temperature is cooler and towards the equator for the heavy rainfall
Hydrosphere
The hydrosphere are all the waters on planet earth, including lakes, seas and rivers
Methane
A colorless odorless gas and flammable gas, it is a greenhouse gas meaning it traps sunlight into the Earth's atmosphere, it comes from the excretion of cows, landfills and the natural gas system.
O3
Ozone is a molecule that forms about 0.1% of the Earth's atmosphere. Naturally occurring ozone is found in the stratosphere and absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun.
Stratosphere
is the second layer of the atmosphere as you go upwards (20 to 50km above sea level). This is where the ozone is. The level of the atmosphere lacks dust and water vapour, but is stable and thin.
Seismic blasting
A method used in the ocean to find oil. Airguns blast very 10 seconds, this is extremely loud that it injures marine life, thus disrupting coastal economies. The marine life often flee and abandon their habitat due to the very loud airgun blasts
Longwave Radiation
Energy emitted by the earth into the atmosphere, this is infrared longwave radiation
IPCC
Stands for: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Dedicated to providing our world with an objective to fight Climate change.
Paris COP21
UN Climate Change conference which took place in Paris in late 2015. The agreement was that countries could set their own goals in reducing their contribution to climate change. Developed countries also pledged $100 billion per year to aid developing countries in hitting their goals by helping them fund efforts to reduce carbon emissions. This was all done in an effort to limit the global temperature increase and keep it under 2°C
Sea level rise
This is mainly caused by thermal expansion of sea water and of the melting of large ice masses. Sea levels may rise to 0.21 to 0.48 meters by the end of the 21st century. This can cause major stress on coastal regions of the world and will result in many climate migrants.
IKEA & WWF
Ingvar Kamprad Elmtaryd Agunnaryd, and is a home furnishings retailer. IKEA is significant to the climate topic, as they try to be as eco-friendly as possible, using renewable energy etc. They also aid in various projects in partnership with WWF. WWF stands for: World Wildlife Fund, but later changed it to World Wide Fund. There projects are to reduce human impact on wildlife ares, and to aid and help rebuild the wildlife
Trucks on Trains (CH)
A form of a "piggyback transportation", the "rolling highway, or "Rola" is when trucks, instead of driving on the highway, are transported by trains to their destination. In Switzerland, about 100,000 trucks are transported per year through the Alps. This concept is especially useful for trucks transporting chemicals, valuable and fragile high-tech components and perishable foods. Also, with less vehicles on the road, the "Rola" reduces carbon emissions and congestion. Current lines in Switzerland run between: Freiburg im Breisgau and Novara and Basel Kleinhüningen Port and Lugano
Milankovitch / Croll cycles
This is the Earth changing its orbit over the course of (very long periods of) time. The eccentricity which is the Earth's orbit, the obliquity which is the tilt and the precession which is the direction of its axis changes slowly over time and these cycles cause a variation in the amount of solar energy getting to the Earth.(Plays a role in climate change)
Shortwave Radiation
Shortwave radiation is known as visible light and ultraviolet radiation. The sun radiates energy towards the earth in the form of visible light with small amounts of visible light and infrared radiation. This means that energy gets radiated towards the earth in shortwave radiation form and gets radiated away in the form of long wave radiation
Tipping point in Climate Change
Refers to the thresholds of earth's natural cycles, and feedback loops which affect them. This means that, as a result of positive feedback loops, certain causes of problem change will be augmented, which means that at some point we will reach a point from which we cannot bring the climate back to its original state.
Loss of Habitat/Animal Migration
The natural home/environment of species is being destroyed, causing loss of habitat for these species. E.g deforestation, melting ice caps, building, rising sea levels; many of these are increased due to climate change. This loss of habitat then forces the animals species to change their migration patterns, leaving some areas earlier/later in the year so they can survive with enough food and water. So, Climate change effects habitat loss and habitat loss effects migration.
Mount Pinatubo 1991/2
A volcano which released 22 million metric tons of sulphur dioxide and reduced average temperature by 0.5 degrees centigrade in the year after the eruption. The volcano was located on the Philippines were 200,000 people were displaced by the eruption. Thanks to America predicting the eruption coming they saved at least 5,000 lives and $250 million in property. The total death toll was 788 people as disease spread in the recovery camps and 350 died in the eruption.
Ozone layer
Found in the lower stratosphere, it <span>acts as a filter for the shorter wavelength and highly hazardous ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun. Its d</span>epletion was caused by the emission of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). The Montreal Protocol (1987) stopped the use of CFCs and reduced ozone depletion. The ozone layer is expected to recover to 1980 benchmark levels by 2050
Sun spots
Are darker areas on the surface of the sun. The greater the number of sunspots the MORE energy the earth receives. An increase in Sun Spots occurs every 11 years.
Vulnerability
"A measure of the degree and type of exposure to risk generated by different societies in relation to hazards." (Canon 1994) The extent to which a natural or social system is susceptible to sustaining damage from climate change; A function of the sensitivity of a system to changes in climate and the ability to adapt to system to changes in climate." (IPCC 1997)
Slip, slap, slop
Is the campaign used when there was a hole in the ozone layer over Australian and the government wanted more people to be aware and put on sunscreen. This is where you slip on a shirt slop on some sunscreen and slap on a hat. This was used to raise awareness for skin cancer. It was absorbed well by the Australian public
Permafrost and methane release
Is ground which is normally totally frozen year-round. With the warming climate, areas of permafrost have thawed in the tundras of Siberia and northern Canada. This frozen biomass stores large amounts of methane gas, which is released as the soil warms. The gas then rises into the atmosphere and contributes heavily to the greenhouse effect, causes more warming, and results in more thawed permafrost- and more methane emissions. Thus, melting permafrost starts a positive feedback loop.
Joe kittinger 1960
Jumped from an altitude of 31,200M, setting several records with one of them still remaining unbeaten. His investigation helped us understand more about the atmosphere. Falling through the stratosphere, Kittinger had no sensation of falling.
The year without a summer 1816
Weather disaster caused by the eruption of Mt. Tambora(1815). Average global temperature dropped by about 0.5c celsius causing major food shortages in northern hemisphere.
Troposhere
This is the lowest layer of atmosphere, closest to earth, up to about 10km from earth. This level contains the most dust particles, water vapour, and pollution. The weather occurs here. It is warmed indirectly due to other layers of the atmosphere above it.
Inuit
A group on Indigenous people from northern Canada. These are the first nations people (indigenous community) of the arctic nation. They live off the land in a traditional way - hunting, fishing and gathering. Due to climate change the sea ice melts and they lose their hunting grounds. Futhermore some islands may become isolated like Disko Island. This will increase tension in communities due to the lack of resources
Industrialization
This revolution began in the late 1800s. It was a period characterized by innovation and new inventions. Some important inventions include the steam engine and milling machines. Fossil fuels placed a key role in fuelling these creations. This not only let to globalization, an increase in development, and health and food security but also led to the amount of CO2 skyrocketing. The most change occurred post war as of the 1950's. In conclusion industrialization leads to an increase in pollution, therefore also an increase in CO2 emission
Mount Tambora, 1815
An Indonesian Volcano which erupted violently in 1815 ( largest ever recorded eruption). So much material was in the atmosphere it caused a world cooling event and in 1816 it was 'the year without a summer' in the US. In the June of 1816 snow fell in the Eastern US. Food shortages and starvation contributed to the deaths of 80,000 people and back then Earth's population was 1 billion people.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Is a cycle which has a negative effect on the global climate. It begins with an event which is caused by global warming or a change in weather patterns, which then causes this event to be exacerbated either locally or globally, as the effects of this event contribute to climate change. A climate related example of this is: due to warmer temperatures the permafrost is melting, which releases more methane and further warms the atmosphere, causing more permafrost to melt.
Insolation
This is incoming solar radiation. Derived from INcoming SOlar radiaTION. this is the amount of the sun's energy that reaches a given area of the earths surface. the change in insolation has lead to the rapid heating of the earth.
Marshall Institute
An organisation funded by corporations to create doubt and fake science to deceive the general public about issues. The Tobacco Industry, DDT and Oil Industries have used their services.
Thames Flood Barrier
A flood barrage in London, opened in 1984. The total construction cost 1.6billion pounds. It's currently being used more than twice as much as planned.
Thermal expansion of the oceans
When the oceans warm, the density decreases and therefore the volume increases. This is a major contributor to sea level change.
Maunder Minimum/Medieval Ice Age
Was at around the middle of the "Little Ice Age" between 1645 and 1715 when sunspots were rare and global temperatures were lower, especially in Europe and North America. Exactly whether the lack of sunspots caused the low temperatures, or simply exacerbated the cooling effects of volcanic eruptions is still somewhat debated.
Mitigation
________________ has upfront economic costs. Humans need to spend money now to develop renewable sources, recycle more and reduce energy consumption. The idea is to do something now to lessen the damage we are doing to the planet and reduce any further impacts on people.
Resilience
The capacity of individuals, societies, organisations or environments to recover &amp; resume 'business as usual' functions &amp; operations following a hazard event or other system shock. I.e. How easily they can "bounce back" from something like a flood.
TESLA
An example of a carbon reduction strategy by a "Civil society organisation" i.e. not a government</p> <p>Premium electric cars and Telsa Tiles (solar panels) and a Tesla Wall (batteries) both to power the electric car and run appliances at home.
Mount Pinatubo 1991
Was the 2nd largest eruption of the 20th century occurred at Mount Pinatubo on June 15th 1991.The effects were felt worldwide, with so much magma, ash and Sulphur Dioxide erupted that a sulfuric haze covered the entire earth. Temperatures around the world dropped by 0.5c in the two years after the eruption and the ozone depletion increased substantially (but only for a relatively short time). It erupted more particulates into the atmosphere that any eruption since Krakatoa in 1883
Gaia Hypothesis
The Gaia hypothesis, proposes that all organisms and their inorganic surroundings on Earth are closely integrated to form a single and self-regulating complex system, maintaining the conditions for life on the planet.

James Lovelock suggested that if the earth has a problem it will eliminate it. The problem with the earth at this point is US!
Global Dimming
The tiny particles released when volcanoes erupt cause global dimming. This process blocks INSOLATION and cools global temperatures. The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia)in 1815 caused significant cooling, and 1816 is known as the year without a summer.
Anthropogenic
Human related process/impact
The enhanced green house effect
The increasing amount of GHGs due to human activity and their impacts
Global warming
Increasing temperatures since the 1950s - 80s
Albedo
The amount of shortwave radiation reflected off the earth back into space (high for ice)
Atmosphere structure
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere (pauses where they meet e.g. tropopause)
The green house effect
Naturally occurring phenomenon that keeps the earth warm. Shortwave radiation emitted by the sun can be absorbed, scattered or reflected by GHGs.
The heat energy balance
Sun inputs 100 (shortwave), 51 is absorbed by the earth, 4 is reflected (mostly ice), 19 absorbed by GHGs, 6 reflected & 20 scattered by GHGs.
The enhanced greenhouse effect
GHGs are emitted due to human activity (fossil fuel combustion). This caused an increase in absorption -> warming
The heat surplus/deficit
CAT - concentration, angle, tilt creates hotter equator and cooler poles. (atmosphere thicker at poles due to spinning, 90* = direct hit, seasons change extremity)
The main horizontal and vertical heat transfers
Heat rises in the tropics, is replaced by cool air = convection current -> wind.

Conduction happens on the surface or inside the planet when
Sensible heat
When an object/substance increases in temperature, the heat increase/decrease is sensible heat
Latent heat
Heat that causes a change of state but not temperature is latent heat (e.g. heat needed to keep water boiling)
Solar output variations
Hotspot activity (solar winds - auras) can link to natural climate change
Variations in orbital geometry e.g. Milankowitsch Cycles
Stretch, wobble and tilt cause long-term warm/cool spells
Positive feedback loops
A system that moves away from the normal e.g. temp increase - permafrost thawing - methane release - GHG energy absorption - warming, whales - mix oceans + feed deep-sea - die - oceans less nutrition
Negative feedback loop
A system going back towards the normal e.g. cooler summer - ice sheet expands - higher albedo - decreased global warming - cooling, planting trees - increase carbon sink - cooling
Albedo (reflection of sunlight)
Surfaces: Ice - 75-95%, water 6-8%, forest 15-20%, tarmac 5-10%
GHG sources (globally)
26% Energy - electricity from fossil fuel burning
20% Industry - manufacturing of good/services
17% Forestry - land use change (cash crops on previous rainforest area)
13% Agriculture - nitrous oxide-fertilizers, livestock
13% Transport - CO2 from vehicles/jet engines
8% Residential/commercial buildings - heating/cooking/electricity use
3% Waste + wastewater - treatment plants/landfill
ImPAcT equation
I = P x A x T
Total impact = pop x affluence (ability to make choices/decisions) x technology (sustainabillty)
CO2 per capita increases as pop increases
Avg. pet in Europe produces more carbon than avg. African
Economic Development
Progress of an economy, the adoption of new technologies & transition from LIC to MIC to HIC
Globalisation
The spread of economic, cultural, social ideas across the world
Trade
The exchange of goods and services due to the uneven distribution of them (+resources) globally
Water stores + impacts from CC
Aquifer/groundwater, soil moisture, cryosphere, clouds, biomass, surface stores (oceans/rivers)
More discharge (short-term), fresh water shortage (long-term), smaller islands/flooding, salt contaminating fresh water, inundation & erosion
Carbon sink
A natural environment able to absorb and store CO2 from atmosphere e.g. biomass, water
Carbon sequestration
The process if carbon sinking (removing CO2 from atmosphere) e.g dissolving, photosynthesis
Carbon store
Any location containing carbon:
Biosphere - biomass (Boreal forest - north), animal life
Hydrosphere - oceans, lakes, soil moisture
Chryosphere - under ice, permafrost
99% Lithosphere - rock (limestone), fossils/hydrocarbons
Atomsphere - gasses (CO2, CO, CH4), liquids (H2O, acid rain), solids (soot, dust)
Carbon transfers
Compression, respiration/photosynthesis, excretion, decomposition, deforestation, chemical reaction (acid rain)
Extreme weather events caused by CC
Heat:
hurricanes, tropical storms, heat waves, winds, wild fires
Canada:
ice storms
Rain:
flooding, mass movements, rain bomb
Depressions - low pressure (bipolar)
High pressure - jamaican hammock
El Nino
Winds push warm water into the pacific - increase temperatures and flooding in southern USA
La Nina
Cooler than normal in central equatorial pacific (wind moves water in a certain way)
Distinguish between natural and human caused change
Pre Industrial revolution (1880) - CO2 levels, carbon dating, drill through ice
Climax vegetation
The 'best' soil/climate/biome that stays the same for generations
How fast can species migrate? (per decade)
Trees 15km
Bushes 30km
Butterflies a little faster
Animals fast
Phytoplankton 500km
Impacts of CC
Habitats:
water availability (glacial flooding), ocean temp increase + acidification, coral bleaching (algae snuffed out), polar regions (changes in ice/snow cover, lack of reliable food/drinking water)
Animals:
whales mix oceans (200 yrs) & feed algae, polar bears have less ice to live on
Agriculture:
warm+wet = pests, monocropping = vulnerable/susceptible to pests/diseases, inundation and salty crops Bangladesh, desertification (droughts/extreme weather), trees/plants grow faster when CO2 high but less nutrients, increase in yield season (unitl too hot), humus decomposition faster, coral bleaching - heat polips expelled, carbonic acid increase from heat - little critter shells dissolve
People:
heat stress, human health migration
Biological capacity
Ability to provide resources/absorb waste for 1 yr
Ecological Footprint
Amount of land/sea needed to supply resources/absorb waste for 1 yr
Causes of soil erosion
Physical:
wind, water (splash, rill, sheet, gully), gravity (mass movements e.g. course debris flow), temp changes, animals (burrowing, grazing)
Human:
deforestation, overgrazing, over-cultivation (agriculture), overcropping, Sahel + Kalahari - low input and output = desertification, pop increase = pressure on land, political instability (war)
Farming/cultivation improvements
Grows faster, fertilisers, hybrids, more land, factory farming, GMO, pesticides.
Soil degradation (and erosion)
physical - crusting, sealing, compaction (machines/animals)
chemical - loss of nutrients, acidification, soil pollution
biological - organic matter entering soil
Erosion - wearing away of topsoil (by water/wind/mass movements)
Soil desertification
Extreme degradation, when habital land turns into desert
People & places at risk of CC
People:
Poor, uneducated, children, women, unstable gov, disabled, worse (than avg.) medical (allergies), mental (anxiety, substance abuse), community (crime) health, perception of risk
Places:
Mass movement vulnerbility, walking close to road, low lying, Sahel (dry), gov policies, coastal area
Extreme Heat Impacts
France 2003 heatwave, 35,000 deaths, 38*C (Paris , heat related illnesses (heat stroke), increased aggresion
Food/water shortages impacts
Somalia drought then famine, 50,000 to 260,000 deaths (9,2m affected), coincided with civil war
CC migration
2012: 32m left homes, USA 780,000 (hurricanes/floods), sub-saharan Africa (drought), Asia (droughts + floods)
Risk
Probability of hazard event causing harmful consequences (losses e.g. death, damage to property, economy, environment)
Disaster
Hazard event that causes widespread distruption to a community/region and they are unable to deal with concequences without help
Hazard event
Occurrence of hazard that has potential to cause loss of life, damage to property, economy, environment
Bangladesh Risk of CC
580km of coastline, mild winter, hot/humid summer, mostly flat, economy based on agriculture (need water), risk of saltwater intrusion, sea level rise, storm surge, coastal areas at risk
Switzerland Risk of CC
Avg. 2C rise (world 0.9), will rise 1-3* more by 2060. Heatwaves cause city tourism and winter tourism decrease, localised water shortages, unstable mountains, glacial melt, mud slides, 2003 heatwave - mountain rain instead of snow = flooding. Eco/socio/polit situation at risk, policies need to be put in place quickly, spent 161b dollars. Landlocked - advantage, lakes have a cooling effect
How do people react to hazards?
Fear - avoid (freeze, flight, fight)
Adapt - prevent (predict, prepare, protect)
Fatalist - accept death
Ignore - oblivious/denial
NGO
Non governmental organisation e.g. WWF
MGO
Multi-Governmental Organisation e.g. EU, UN, NAFTA
Solving CC
If:
Costs are externalised, nature deals with repercussions, but internalising the costs into the economy is expensive.
Then:
Gov sanctions (tax punishment), short-term technological fix, change mindset, reduce cash crops, don't use guilt/fear but instil hope, give land/trees value, reduce/stop fossil fuel use
Geopolitics
Global policies on the earth to deal with CC, OPEC (oil) has power
Dwindling power of oil producers
Where there's national oil (Bahrain/Saudi) - conflict of interest occurs
Lobbyists
Go to try to convince congressmen/PM to vote for green paties/policies
Cost of change for CC
loss of jobs in industry, loss of previous 100yrs of infrastructure/tech/adaptation, loss of income/tax from fossil fuels
Cap and Trade technology
Gov mandated, market-based approach
Cap - limit/capacity
Trade - exchange of goods/services
It gives an amount of carbon able to be produced and gives carbon credits (carbon currency) to companies with lower emissions. Companies with higher emissions must buy credits to become equal (from the companies that were under). The more people involved, the better the market and some green companies never sell credits to increase scarcity.
California has a programme (EDF design) from 2013-15, 4% decrease in emisssions
EU 15% lower in 2015 than 2005.
Some companies (oil) have enough money to carbon offset, therefore not really reducing emissions. Credits can be auctioned - economy+
Carbon poilicies
CH - carbon tax
UK - petrol tax
China - quickly working to reduce pollution
Carbon offsetting
Reduction in emissions to compensate by buying carbon credits to sequester production, investing in renewable energy/reforestation
Conservation
Save energy through insulation, protect an area. Problem with current consumer fashion trend e.g. Apple products. Swiss approach - more expensive, better quality
Substitution
Find better alternatives e.g. solar, copper wires replaced by (glass) fiberoptic cables, electric/hydrogen cell cars, recycled materials
Stewardship
Looking after the planet (making good decisions) on a personal, community or global level (consumer + producer)
Rio Earth Summit
1992 - first international meeting of 100 heads of state to discuss environmental protection for socio/eco development - plan
Kyoto protocol (1997)
UNFCCC - international treaty to stabilise GHG concentrations in the atmosphere + prevent human-caused damage. Followed by 2009 Copenhagen CC conference, however LEDCs and MEDCs cannot decide on carbon cuts.
Geoengineering
Deliberate large-scale manipulation of environmental process to reduce impacts of global warming; large mirrors to reflect light, aerosols (sulphates) into stratosphere (poles) - global dimming, photocatalytic concrete (Italy), afforestation, biochar - leave charred biomass on forest floor
Carbon sink management
Difficult because lithium are needed for car batteries, rare earth metals for touchscreen, using recycled materials means mining companies struggle, geoengineering - moral hazard - ppl think it's okay to emit.
Civil Society Group (CSG)
An organised movement working between household, private sector, state negotiation e.g. academic institutions, charities, faith based orgs, NGOs
Trade bloc
Trade area agreed upon by countries e.g. EU, agree on tarrifs etc.
Trade union
Group of employees that come together to protect working rights (negotiate wages, help in a court case) - go on strike e.g. teacher's/miner's union
Corporation
Large company (TNC)
Corporate entity
Private company (legal agreement about how employees, shareholders will be treated).
Types of action
Direct:
Protests, petitions, policy formation/collaboration
Indrect:
Advocacy, advertising (spreading awareness), scientific research, reperesenting people who have been wronged legally, relief efforts, lobbying
Causes of CC
Anthropogenic:
Fertilizers (nitrous oxide), deforestation, vehicles, GHG emissions, Industries,
Natural:
Solar, ocean currents, forest fires, methane from animals, meteorites, El Nino/Nina
Technologies for adaptation (reduce risk/vulnerability)
Walls/coastal defences/dykes/pumps e.g. Holland Piet Dircke company, agriculture (salt-resistant crops/GMO), water conservation (irrigation, desalination), rain bombs, infectious disease innovations

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