94 terms

Food Fermentation

Fermentation of wine, cucumber, soy sauce, Sausage, yogurt and sauerkraut.
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Flavor enhancer developed through the study of soy sauce
Monosodium Glutamate - flavor enhancer developed by the nucleotide industry
Soy Sauce
A light brown to black liquid with a meat like salty flavor manufactured by hydrolyzing soybeans with or without the addition of wheat.
Soy Sauce Pasteurization
The liquid soy sauce is heated to pasteurization temperature ( 70-80C) Pasteurization helps to remove heat coagulable material and preserves the product.
Chemical hydrolysis Soy sauce
Process is simpler, faster and cheaper then fermentation process. Products lacks flavor of fermented soy sauce. Limited market in Asia.
Pure culture Soy sauce
Pediococcus soyae and Saccharomyces rouxii
added to moromi at start and 1 month after.
Mold essential microorganism soy sauce
Aspergillus soyae (A. soyae)
Aspegillus oryzae (A. oryzae)
Latic Acid essential microorganism soy sauce
Pediococcus cerevisiae (P. cerevisiae)
Lactobacillus delbruckii (L. delbruckii)
Salt Tolerant yeast essential microorganism soy sauce
Saccharomyces rouxii (S. rouxii)
Zygosaccharomyces soyea (Z. soyea)
Zygosaccharomyces major (Z. major)
Important Amino Acid in Soy Sauce flavoring
Glutamic acid and its salt are very important in soy sauce flavoring
What causes the Color Development in soy sauce
Color development is mainly due to browning reactions between amino acids and sugars.
Putrescine
An amine produced in putrefaction. Identified in soy sauce by Yamada in 1929
Cadaverine
a colorless, viscous, toxic ptomaine, formed by the action of bacilli on proteins. Identified in soy sauce by Yamada in 1929
Shoyu contribution to diet (soy sauce)
Very easily digested and absorbed by humans. Contributes amino acids and peptides and stimulates the appetite through attractive flavor.
Yogurt
A lactic fermented milk product which results from the symbiotic or protocooperative growth of mixed culture.
Yogurt Culture starters
Streptococcus salivarius
Streptococcus thermophilus
Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Specialty yogurt culture starters
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus bulgaricus
Swiss style yogurt formulations
Swiss style - add nonfat dry milk (NDM) 2-5% fortification level, gelatin and/or hydrocolloid stabilizers 0.1-0.5% (vet set0
Custard style yogurt formulations
Fortified at higher nonfat dry milk (NDM) lever then swiss style 5%. Higher hydrocolloid stabilizers (cup set) Culture in cup with fruit on bottom.
Low solids yogurt formulatoins
Formulated with no added nonfat dry milk (NDM) or fortified at lower level of nonfat dry milk(NDM) 1-2%. Use low viscosity stabilizers
Drinkable yogurt and yogurt drinks formulations
Formulated with no added nonfat dry milk (NDM). May add fruit juice
are low fat or nonfat 2% or whole milk yogurt.
Yogurt heating
Optimum heating 182 -185 F for 20-30 minutes in batch processing
High temperature short time(HTST) processing at 195-200 F for 3-6 minutes.
More extreme then typical milk pasteurization. (145F for 30 min and 165F for 15 sec)
Why is extreme heat used for during yogurt process
Such heat provides denaturation of whey proteins and optimum casein hydration for yogurt gel structure with minimal whey syneresis.
what is minimal whey syneresis
Stopping the wheying off in the carton of yogurt when handling
Yogurt lower heating temperature
lower heating results in weak texture because of less protein denaturation. used in drinkable yogurt products
Industrial short time method (yogurt)
Milk is inoculated at 1-3% with a 1:1 mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus at 45 C , final pH 4.3 for 6 hours
Industrial long time method (yogurt)
Milk is inoculated at 1-3% with a 1:1 mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus at 30-32 C, final pH 4.3 for 12-16 hours
(more balanced product with more even viscosity
Fermented Sausage classifications
Spreadable,
Sliceable short process,
Sliceable long process
Fermented sausage
Emulsion of meat and fat particles, NaCl, curring agents and spices
Stuffed into casing, fermented and dried.( microbiologically stable at ambient temperatures)
Spreadable sausage
Process - 3-5 days
H2O content - 34-42%
aW level - 0.95-0.96
Example - teewurst
Sliceable Short processed sausage
Process - 1-4 days
H2O conten - 30-40%
aW level - 0.92-0.94
Example - summer sausage
Sliceable Long processed sausage
Process - 12-14 weeks
H2O content - 20-30%
aW level - 0.82-0.86
Example - Salamis
Fermented sausage flow chart
Chop and combine meat and fat
I _ NaCl, curing agents
I
Stuff into skins
I _ Mold or yeast inoculum
I
Fermentation
I
Semi Dry ___ I _____ Dry
I I _ Dry and mature
Dry -smoke cook I
I ________________ I
I
Distribution
I
Slicing and pre-packing
I
Retailing
Sausage starter culture Lactobacillus
Lb. curvatus,
Lb. jensenill,
Lb. plantarun,
Lb. sake
Sausage starter culture Pediococcus
Pd. Acidilactici,
Pd. Damnosus,
Pd. Pentasaceous
Sausage starter culture Lactococcus
Lc. lactis supb sp. Lactis,
Lc. Lactis sub sp. diacetylactis
Criteria lactic acid bacteria sausage fermentation
1. Must be able to compete effectively with indigenous lactic acid bacteria
2. Must produce adequate quantities of lactic acid
3. Must be tolerant of NaCl and able to grow in a concentration of at least 6%
4. Must be tolerant of NaNO2 and able to grow in a concentration of at least 100 mg/kg
5. Must be able to grow in the temperature rage 13-40 C with an optimum in the range 30-37 C
Criteria lactic acid bacteria sausage fermentation
6. Must be homofermentative
7. Must not be proteolytic
8. Must not produce large quantities of H2O2
9. Should be catalase positive
10. Should reduce nitrate
Criteria lactic acid bacteria sausage fermentation
11. Should enhance flavour of the finished sausage
12. Should not produce biogenic amines
13. Should not produce slime
14. Should be antagonistic to pathogenic and other undesirable microorganisms
15. Should be tolerant of or synergistic with other starter components
Factors affecting competitive starter stains (Sausage)
1. The initial number of indigenous lactic aid bacteria in the mix
2. The nature of indigenous lactic acid bacteria
3. Size of inoculum of starter lactic acid bacteria
4. The physiological state of starter lactic acid bacteria
5. The mix formulation
Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria starter culture (Sausage)
1. Enhancement of acid production at temperatures below 15C
2. Ability to grow in higher NaCl concentrations
3. High level of nitrate reduction
4. Production of desirable aromas
5 Enhancement of competitive ability through utilization of special carbohydrates
NaCl (Sausage)
NaCl plays a role in solubilizing proteins
Nitrite (Sausage)
Nitrite determine color
Carbohydrates (Sausage)
Ensures that sufficient fermentable substrate is present to enhance the growth of lactic acid bacteria and produces organic acids
Glucose (Sausage)
Rapidly metabolized is usually added with a slow metabolizer oligosaccharide
Meat extenders (Sausage)
Meat extenders isolated soy protein has humectant properties and permits some reduction of the NaCl content
Starter Culture forms(Sausage)
Freeze dried - required reconstitution in water before adding to sausage.
Lactic acid (Sausage)
Production of lactic acid is accompanied by a fall in pH value and high-acid semi-dry products have not matured enough
Pickling cucumbers preservation methods
Fermentation 40% production
Pasteurization 40% production
Refrigeration 20% production
Fermentation method pickles
Fermentation oldest method - only method until 1940
Pasteurization method pickles
Introduced in 1940 - resulted in increase consumption of pickles, milder acid flavor and uniform quality 74 C /15 min
Refrigerated method pickles
Introduced in 1960s - preserved by low concentrations of vinegar and chemicals, refrigerate at 1-5 C
Pickle flow chart
Harvest
I
Transport
I
Receiving station
I
Grade
I
Hydrocool
I
Transport
I
Pickle Plant
Pickle flow chart
Brine Stock
- Grade - Tank - Brine - salt as needed -
I
Ferment - Grade (cut or whole) - Desalt - Finish(dill, sour, sweet)
I
Fill - Cover liquor - Cap - Pasteurize - Cool - Label - Case -
I
Warehouse
Pickle flow chart
Fresh Pack
- Grade -Wash (cut or whole) - Inspect(cut) - blanch(whole)
I
Fill - Cover liquor - cap - pasteurize - cool - label - case -
I
Warehouse
Pickle flow chart
Refigerated
- Grade - wash - pack(cut or whole) -cover liquor -
I
Cap - Label - refigeratet
Lactic Acid bacteria Pickles
Streptococcus faecalis
Streptococcus lactis
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Pediococcus pentosaceus
Lactobacillus brevis
Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus bavaricus
Cucumber fermentation sugars
converts to lactic and acetic acids, ethanol, mannitol and CO2
Hamburger pickles
Lactic acid pickles too tart. Vinegar (acetic acid) flavor desired.
remove the lactic acid by desalting removing the brine and replacing with acetic acid (vinegar to acidify)
Cabbage for sauerkraut production
Grows in cooler climates in the US primarily New York and Wisconsin
Natural Fermentation Cabbage
Cabbage contains microorganisms and high numbers of total aerobic bacteria. LAB gives distinct flavor to sauerkraut
Total aerobic bacteria sauerkraut
Streptococcus feacalis
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Lactobacillus brevis
Pedococcus cerevisiae
Lactobacillus plantanum
Fermentation sugars cabbage
Primarily glucose and fructose and small amount of sucrose
Core of the cabbage has a higher level of sucrose than leaves
High temperature effects on cabbage fermentation
Results in a inferior flavor, fermentation by homofermetative LAB and an improper ratio of lactic acetic acids
Cabbage fermentation flavor defects
Caused by production of butyric and other short chain fatty acids
Browning of sauerkraut after canning
Darkening of sauerkraut of bulk storage and canning is due to oxidative changes.
Sauerkraut flow chart
Fresh Cabbage
I
Trim and Clean
I
core
I
Shred (to 2-5 mm thick)
I
Salt ( add 2.25% (w/w) salt in US
I
Fill into vats
I
Cover and seal with proper weight
I
Ferment
I
Pasteurize
I
Can or package in plastic bags with perservative
Fortified wines
Fermented, partially fermented or un-fermented grape must is enriched with wine-derived spirit for a final alcohol content of 15-22%
Adding of alcohol (fortified wines)
Adding alcohol before fermentation completes results in the yeast stopping the fermentation process of the remaining sugar. sweeter product.
Sherry (fortified wines)
Originated from spain drier form and uses white grapes
Port and Madeira (fortified wines)
Made from white and red grapes
Port (fortified wines)
Made from unfinished fermented grapes, sweeter than sherry, ferments for 2-3 days at low RT
Madeira and Sherry (fortified wines)
Madeira - made both ways
Sherry - made from dry wine
Sherry age (fortified wines)
Aged for a minimum of 3 years
flavor - apple note nutty and woody
Port Lower fermentation (fortified wine)
Lower fermentation temperature, brandy added after 2-3 days fermentation
Ruby Port (fortified wines)
Aged in wood for 3-5 years
Tawny port (fortified wines)
Aged in wood for 30 years or more
Vintage Port (fortified wines)
Made from single harvest, outstanding quality, aged in wood after 2-3 years aging complete. Remaining aging completed in bottle for at least 10 years
Aging causes polymerization of anthocyanins with other phenol
Madeira Temperature (fortified wines)
Madeira not temperature controlled, grape juice provides sweetness
There is a heating process(estufagen)
Estufagen Madeira (fortified wines)
Circulation of hot water around Madeira for 3 months at about 40-50 degree celcius.
Cider
Fermented apple drink produced in england
Cider apples
Bittersharp
Bittersweet
Sharp
Sweet
Differences in amount of tannnins and acid.
Best cider varieties high in sugar
Also use apple juice concentrates
Cider processing
Apple - milling - crushing - pressing
I
Fermentation
I
Blending of juices
I
Use pectolitic enzymes to break pulp and increase yield
I
Sulfites
I
Yeast
Cider Color and flavor
Color - regulated by addition of sulfates
Flavor - volatile constituents
Cider Post fermentation
Natural settling, racking, fining agents and filtration
Cider Problems
Mousiness - due to some isomers of 2-acetyl
Ropiness - when viscosity increases
Chill haze - due to proteins-poly phenol complexes
Bread ingredients
Starchy grains(mainly wheat and rye)
Water
Salt and leavening agents
Other - sugar, fat, eggs, and other minor ingredients
Bread production
Cereal grains
I ____Grade, clean, mill
Flour
I
water, salt, fat yeast_ _I _ _Mix, Knead
I
Dough
I ____ Fermentation 25-30 C 2-3 hour
I Bake 220-250 C 20-30 min
I
Bread
I _____ Cool, package
Flour (bread production)
Flour
-Wheat contains gluten and it is of critical importance
-Gluten - for elasticity and extensibility
contains starch during gelatinization produces maltose
-Water check the water hardness
-Salt 1.5 to 2% inhibits hydration of gluten therefor gas retention is enhanced, if no salt is used you may have too much dough extension
Maltose (bread production)
Helps bread to rise
Fats (bread production)
Form a film between the starch and proteins
Sugar (bread production)
Promote fermentation and browning through Millard reation
Leavening (bread production)
Baker's yeast 1-6 %
Sourdough starter cultures
-Homofermentative organisms - Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus
-Heterofermentative organisms - Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum
-Yeast - Candida crusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Chemical Leavening agents (bread production)
Used mainly for sweet goods and cakes
carbonate and acid under heat generates carbon dioxide
Leavening may be achieved by physical treatments
Additives (bread production)
Enzymes - Proteinases, pentonases
Emulsifying agent - sodium stearoyl lactylate and sorbitan esters