245 terms

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the process of protein sythesis
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Terms in this set (...)

transcription
the process where the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
Which step is this?
transcription
Which step is this?
translation
the process where genetic information coded in mRNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome
mRNA
type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
tRNA
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
codon
sequence of three bases on a strand of mRNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
pairing
In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C;
RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C

This is an example of complementary base ________
cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ribosome
organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA
pores
holes in the nuclear envelope that allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus are called nuclear __________.
amino acid
building block of protein
adenine
pairs with uracil in RNA
cytosine
pairs with guanine
nitrogenous bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracail
transcription
process by which a section of DNA is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule
translation
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
mRNA
Carries the genetic code for a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes where the proteins are assembled.
tRNA
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
ribosome
organelle where amino acids are bonded together to form proteins
codon
three-base sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
transcription
The first stage of protein synthesis where the information on a section of DNA (a gene) is copied by making a mRNA molecule from the DNA.
translation
The second part of protein synthesis. The mRNA code is used to synthesize a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
mRNA
What is C? It takes the information in a gene from the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
ribosome
What is A? The site of protein synthesis. Where a specific amino acid sequence is assembled based on a mRNA code
Amino Acid chain or protein or polypeptide
What is B?
tRNA
What is A? Brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome to be added to the growing amino acid chain.
codon
What is A? A three base sequence on an mRNA molecule that codes for a specific amino acid
anticodon
What is A? A three base sequence on a tRNA molecule that is complimentary to a codon on an mRNA.
DNA
What is A? Double stranded molecule that contains genes and is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
nucleus
the place where transcription takes place
DNA
What is A?
mRNA
What is A?
Nuclear Envelope
What is A?
ribosome
What is A?
tRNA
What is A?
codon
What is A?
anticodon
What is A?
amino acid chain (protein)
transcription
What is taking place in A?
translation
What is taking place in A?
Protein Synthesis
What process is shown in this diagram?
nuclear membrane
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
RNA polymerase
ribosome
codon
anticodon
amino acid chain (protein)
protein synthesis
What process is taking place in this diagram?
transcription
What process is taking place in this diagram?
the nucleus
Where in a eukaryotic cell does the process in this diagram take place?
translation
What process is taking place in this diagram?
the cytoplasm at a ribosome
In what part of the cell does the process in this diagram take place?
transcription
What process is taking place in this diagram
When is mRNA made?
during transcription
where is mRNA made?
in the nucleus
where is DNA located?
in the nucleus
what is used to carry the genetic code from DNA to the ribosomes?
mRNA
what makes up ribosomes?
rRNA
what uses uracil instead of thymine?
RNA
what makes up proteins?
amino acids
where does transcription take place?
in the nucleus
where is tRNA used in?
translation
what does tRNA use to match to the mRNA?
anticodons
where are proteins made?
at the ribosome
what attaches the amino acids into a chain
tRNA
where is tRNA found in?
cytoplasm
what converts mRNA into a protein?
Translation
where does translation take place?
cytoplasm
can DNA or RNA leave the nucleus?
RNA
what converts DNA into a mRNA
Transcription
microscope
The invention of the (ripccmoose)__________________made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells.

p7
a
page 17

Which is mismatched?

a. all are mismatched
b. cell membrane-structural support
c. cell membrane-surround plant cells & not animal
d. cell membrane-works like scafolding)
active
This is ______transport.
passive
This is ______transport.
cell wall
What is part of a plant cell, but NOT an animal cell?

unscramble: (cEallllW)
nucleus
What is part of a plant cell, but NOT a bacterial cell?

unscramble (ceuuLsn)
prophase
What happens if the nuclear envelope breaks and chromosomes condense?

unscramble: (p r o p h a s e)
4
Which number is mismatched?

1. cell membrane-controls what enters & leaves

2. cell membrane-thin

3. Cell membrane-gate keeper

4. cell membrane-structural support
1
Which number is mismatched?

1. cell wall-selectivly permeable

2. cell wall-structural support

3. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal

4. cell wall-rigid support
2
Which number is mismatched?

1. cell wall-structural support

2. cell wall-works like a window screen

3. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal

4. cell wall-rigid support
3
Which number is mismatched?

1. cell wall-structural support

2. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal

3. Cell wall-discriminates

4. cell wall-works like scafolding
1
Which number is mismatched?

1. Cell wall-controls what enters & leaves

2.cell wall-structural support

3. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal

4. cell wall-works like scaffolding
4
Which number is mismatched?

1. cell wall-structural support

2. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal

3. cell wall-works like scaffolding

4. none are mismatched
interphase
The longest part of the cell cycle is the _____________.

unscramble: (PIantErase)
cancer
The uncontrolled division of certain body cells, which then invade the surrounding tissues and interfere with the normal functioning of the body, is known as ______.
condense
during prophase the chromosomes _______________

unscramble: (doncnSee)
envelope
The nuclear _________ breaks up during prophase.

unscramble: (nvPeoeel)
line up
during metaphase the chromosomes ____________ ______.

unscramble: (PuIlen)
apart
during anaphase the chromosomes __________ __________.

unscramble: (M a v p o Te a r)
energy
osmosis does NOT use ________ but active transport does
true
true or false

The nuclear envelope breaks up during prophase.
Aa
What BEST describes an organism that is heterozygous?

pick from
Aa
TT
tall
short
F1
In which generation do all plants show the dominant trait?

pick from
P1
F1
F2
F1
In which generation would have only a heterozygous genotype?

pick from
P1
F1
F2
window screen
the cell membrane is like a (drensreinwow) ______________ ____________
p17
5
Which is the cell membrane?
1, 2, 3, 4, or 5

page 20
4
Which is the cell wall?
1, 2, 3, 4, or 5

page 20
2
Which is the director or the cell (aka nucleus)?
1, 2, 3, 4, or 5

page 20
1
Which is the vacuole?
1, 2, 3, 4, or 5

page 20
3
Which is the chloroplast (the part that makes food)?
1, 2, 3, 4, or 5

page 20
anaphase
The hand symbol represent (naashape) ______________ because the chromosomes are pulled a-a-a-apart.

p59
apart
The hand symbol represent a-a-a-anaphase because the chromosomes are pulled a-a-a-____________.

p59
metaphase
During (tapesshame) __________ the chromosomes line up in the m-m-m-m- middle.

p59
middle
During m-m-m-metaphase the chromosomes line up in the _______.

p59
b
Which microscope is set for a total magnification of 400x
400
If the eyepiece is 10X and the objective is 40X, then what is the total magnification? _________X
nucleus
A bacterial cell does not contain a (celunus) ________________ or other organelles.

p24
organelles
A bacterial cell does not contain a NUCLEUS or other (organseell)__________.

p24
energy
Osmosis does not require the cell to use its own (greeny)_______________

p36.
animal cell
An (ceanimalll)________ _______ has many small vacuoles but NO cell wall?
p21
osmosis
Movement of water across a membrane & does not require the cell to use its own ENERGY
bacterial cell
A (btriccelelala) _________ ____________ does not contain a nucleus.

p24
passive
Active transport requires the cell to use its own energy, while (savpies)_______________ transport does not.

p36
transport
osmosis is a type of passive _________ because does not require the cell to use its own ENERGY

p36
active transport
(ceatIv) ___________ transport requires the cell's energy.

p36
cytokinesis
Notice that the cell cycle is divided into three main stages: 1. interphase, 2. mitosis, and 3. (kInesiscYto)____________________p56.
interphase
Notice that the cell cycle is divided into three main stages: 1. (prInthaSee) ___________, 2. mitosis, and 3.cytokinesis

p56.
mitosis
Notice that the cell cycle is divided into three main stages: 1. interphase, 2. (ssIiTom)_________, and 3.cytokinesis

p56.
tumor
A (morut) _____________is a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollable.
p65
abnormal
A tumor is a mass of (anmalrob)___________ cells.

p65
membrane
Number 1 is the cell ______.

p17
vacuole
Which organelle is number 3?

p20
nucleus
Number 2 is the ________.

p18
false
true or false

An egg cell contributes ALL of the chromosomes to the offspring.
false
true or false

The cell wall control what enters and leaves the plant cell.
true
true or false

The cell membrane control what enters and leaves the plant cell.
false
true or false

The cell wall provides structural support to animal cells
true
true or false

The cell wall provides structural support to plant cells
150
If the eyepiece is 10x and the objective 15x, then what is the power of magnification?
B
Which microscope has a power of magnification set for 400X?
food
Photosynthesis stores energy as _______ & respiration releases energy from _______.

unscramble: (Doof)
mitochondria
Chloroplasts store energy as food & ________ releases energy from food.

unscramble: (coonMthdraII)
convert
Chloroplasts store energy as food & mitochondria __________ energy from food.

unscramble: (CntreVo)
nucleus
This is a bacterial cell because it has NO ____________.
wall
Number 4 is the cell __________.

p17
cell membrane
The __________ _________ controls what goes in and out of the cell?

p17
cell wall
The ________ _________ provides structural support to PLANT and bacterial cells.

p17
pro
During _____phase chromosomes condense in preparation for lining up.

p59 (opr)
meta
During _____ phase the chromosomes line up in the middle.

p59 (etam)
ana
This is ______phase?

p59 (naa)
telophase
What mitosis phase does the T stand for in P. M. A. T.?

p59
cancer
uncontrolled cell division

p65
chemotherapy
drugs to treat and destroy cancer cells

(mechopyheart)

p66
energy
Active transport requires ________ use but osmosis does not

p36
chloroplast
part of the plant cell that is responsible for plants making their own food
objective
What lens is R?
nucleus
The director of the cell.

page 18
animal
the cell wall is part of a plant cell, but NOT an _____________ cell
genes
What controls traits? p79
mitochondria
organelles that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

(hotcdriaanim)
anaphase
What phase of mitosis is this?

p59
uncontrolled
cancer is (oouncntrlled) __________cell division.

p65
two recessive
A short (tt) plant requires (viceeetwo rss) ___________ alleles.

p79
one dominant
A tall (Tt or TT) plant requires at only (doonemiannt) allele.

p79
mitochondria
(MoonRicDaIt)

muscle cells have lots of _______________.
A
Which phrase describes the cell wall?
A. a rigid structure
B. found in all organisms
C. selectively permeable
4
which location shows an offspring with a
homozygous recessive trait
c
What cell part is responsible for making proteins?
A. nucleus
B. lysosome
C. ribosome
A
What does diffusion accomplish?
A. movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
B. movement of particles from a lower concentration to a higher concentration
C. uses energy to move particle across the membrane
A
Which kind of particle movement requires the cell to use energy?

A. active transport
B. osmosis
C. diffusion
chemical
An organism with chloroplasts obtain energy to carry out life functions by transforming light energy to _________ energy through photosynthesis.
oxygen
__________ is released into the atmosphere from a chloroplast
homozygous
___________means the same thing as "purebred"


Pick from
homozygous
heterozygous
hybrid
c
A mutation in which of the following cells can be passed on to offspring?
A. skin cell
B. muscle cell
C.. sex cell
b
Mutations, sexual reproduction, & hidden genes all____________variation in a species

pick
a. decrease
b. increase
theory
Microscope lead to the development of the cell______.
cell wall
A plant's ___________ _____p17 helps to protect and support the cell.
rigid
The cell wall is a (drIig)___________________ p17 layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plant and some other organisms.
directing
You can think of the nucleus as the cell's control center, (iIdgrenct)___________________ p18 all of the cell's activities.
chloroplasts
(poohllartssc) __________________ p22 capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce FOOD for the cell.
chloroplasts
(poohllartssc) __________________ p22 make leaves green. The main photosynthetic pigment in (llartsscpooh) _________________ p46 is chlorophyll.
plant cells
Most (eatplnclls) _________ _________ p22 have one large vacuole.
smaller
bacterial cells are usually much (slalerm)________________p24 than plant or animal cells.
a
Inbreeding, cloning, & asexual reproduction all____________variation in a species

pick
a. decrease
b. increase
smaller
bacterial cells are usually much (slalerm)________________p24 than plant or animal cells.
bacterial cell
A (btrIccelelalA) ____________ ____________ p24 does have a cell wall and a cell membrane, but it does not contain a nucleus.
without
The movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane (HotwItu)_______________ p36 using cellular energy is called passive transport.
active
(ceatIv) ___________ p36 transport requires the cell's energy.
drugs
There are three common ways to treat cancer: surgery, radiation, and (sugrd) __________p66that destroy the cancer cells.
uncontrollably
cancerous cells divide and grow (notrollaunbcly) _________________________p65.
a
Which is its function?
a. converting energy from food molecules
b. responsible for plants making their own food
c. controls what enters and leaves the cell
d. provides structural support)
1
page 196
matching

1. A eyepiece, B objective, C. Stage, D. Diaphram

2. A eyepiece, B convex, C. Stage, D. Diaphram

3. A eyepiece, B objective, C. pad, D. Diaphram,

4. objective , B slide, C. Stage, D. Diaphram)
d
page 17-18

How is the cell membrane different than the nuclear envelope?

a. cell membrane is one layer and the nuclear envelope is two

b. the nuclear envelope breaks up during prophase and the cell membrane breaks up during apoptosis,

c. the cell membrane has tiny holes and the nuclear membrane has lager holes

d. all are correct
purebred
Hybrid is to Heterozygous as _______________ is to Homozygous.
Mendel
Robert Hooke is to cells as Gregor_________________ is to genetics.
prophase
What happens if the nuclear envelope breaks and chromosomes condense?
d
p17

Which number is mismatched?

a. cell membrane-controls what enters & leaves,

b. Cell membrane-gate keeper (discriminates)

c. cell membrane-thin & selectively permeable

d. cell membrane-structural support
a
page 20

a. 1-vacuole, 2-nucleus, 3-chloroplast, 4-cell wall, 5-cell membrane,

b. 1-nucleus, 2-vacuole, 3-chloroplast, 4-cell wall, 5-cell membrane

c. 1-vacuole, 2-nucleus, 3-chloroplast, 4-cell membrane , 5-cell wall

d. 1-vacuole, 2-chloroplast, 3-nucleus, 4-cell wall, 5-cell membrane
p1
In which generation are all plants purebred?

pick

p1, f1, or f2
a
Osmosis is like cycling downhill. Osmosis does not require _________. p36

a. the cell to use its own energy, water

b. a concentration gradient

c. a cell membrane
b
Which is true?
a. An egg cell contributes ALL of the chromosomes to the offspring.,

b. the nuclear envelope breaks up during prophase.,

c. The cell wall control what enters and leaves the plant cell.,

dThe cell wall provides structural support to animal cells)
a
How is photosynthesis different than respiration.

a. Photosynthesis stores energy respiration releases energy.,

b. Photosynthesis takes place in the mitochondria,

c. Photosynthesis produces light and respiration does not.,

d. Photosynthesis happens during the daytime and respiration does not.
a
All of the following are differences between plant and animal cells EXCEPT.

a. Animal cells have a cell membrane and plant cells do not

b. Plant cells have a cell wall; animal cells do not.

c. Animal cells are more sphere-like and plant cells are more cube-like

d. Plant cells have a very large vacuole and animal cells have several smaller vacuoles
1
page 196
Which is the correct Total Mag.?

1. A.40X, B.400X, C.100X,

2. A.160X, B.160X, C.400X,

3. A.14X, B.50X, C.20X,

4. A.400X, B.400X, C.1000X)
a
page 17

Which is mismatched?

a. cell wall-selectively permeable,

b. cell wall-structural support,

c. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal,

d. cell wall-rigid support
d.
page 17

Which is mismatched?

a. cell wall-structural support,

b. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal,

c. cell wall-rigid support

d. cell wall-works like a window screen
d
Which is mismatched?

a. cell wall-structural support,

b. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal,

c. cell wall-works like scaffolding

d. Cell wall-discriminates
c
Which is mismatched?
a. cell wall-structural support,

b. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal,

c. Cell wall-controls what enters & leaves

d. cell wall-works like scaffolding
d
page 17

Which is mismatched?

a cell wall-works like scaffolding,

b. cell wall-surround plant cells & not animal,

c. cell wall-structural support,

d. none are mismatched
3
The cell cycle has _____ main stages.
pick from
(3, 4, 5, 2)
4
Mitosis has ____ main phases.
pick from
(3, 4, 5, 2)
a
Which one below is the correct order for the phases of mitosis?

a. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,

b. metaphase, anaphase, telophase, prophase,

c. anaphase, telophase, prophase, metaphase,

d. telophase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase
b
p36 What is true of the net movement of water?

a. Water will move equally through the cell membrane.,

b. Water will move into the cell through the cell membrane.,

c. Water will move out of the cell through the cell membrane.,

d. Water will be unable to move through the cell membrane.)
chromosomes
during PROphase __________ condense and the nuclear envelope breaks down
passive
_____________ transport does NOT use energy to move materials through a membrane
does NOT
Passive transport (sNOoTed) ______ _______ use energy to move materials through a membrane
osmosis
Active transport requires energy use but (IoosssM)_________ does not.
false
true or false

Osmosis requires energy use but active transport does not.
false
true or false

Active transport requires water but osmosis does not.
false
Osmosis is the transport of any material but active transport is not.
mitochondria
_______________ is responsible for converting food into energy molecules to be used later
chloroplast
_________________ is responsible for plants making their own food
nucleus
is considered the director of the cell's activities
egg
The (gee)______ cell contribute half of the chromosomes needed to the offspring
half
The egg cell contribute (FlAH)____ of the chromosomes needed to the offspring
chromosomes
The egg cell contribute half of the (crmmHoooess)________________ needed to the offspring
DNA
...
Nuclear envelope
...
mRNA
...
Nuclear pore
...
protein
...
3
A tRNA molecule with the anticodon ACA would be carrying the amino acid .....
1. None (its a stop anticodon) 2. Glycine.
3. Cysteine. 4. Tryotophan.
mRNA
The molecule represented by the line labelled X is
2,1, 3, 5, 4
1. mRNA is formed. 2. DNA segment opens (unzips). 3. mRNA attaches to ribosomes. 4. amino acids form a protein. 5. tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA.

The correct order of events required for protein synthesis is
2,1,3,4,5
1. Uracil bonds with adenine. 2. DNA segment opens (unzips). 3. mRNA attaches to ribosomes. 4. tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA. 5 amino acids form a protein.

The correct order of events required for protein synthesis is
2, 1, 3, 4
1. Uracil bonds with adenine. 2. DNA
unzips 3.mRNA joins with ribosome. 4. Complementary bonding between codon and anticodon.

The correct order of the above during protein synthesis is
CCU
What is the mRNA codon of this DNA triplet

DNA -->GGA
mRNA-->???
CCT
What is the DNA triplet of this mRNA codon

DNA --> ? ? ?
mRNA-->GGA
CAA
What is the mRNA codon this DNA triplet

DNA --> GTT
mRNA-->? ? ?
GUU
What is the tRNA anticodon this mRNA codon?

mRNA--> CAA
tRNA --> ? ? ?
"stop" codon
Use this section of the mRNA codon chart to identify the amino acid.

DNA-->ACT
mRNA-->UGA
tRNA-->ACU
Cysteine
Use this section of the mRNA codon chart to identify the amino acid.

DNA -->ACA
mRNA-->UGU
tRNA -->ACA
Tryptophan
Use this section of the mRNA codon chart to identify the amino acid.

DNA -->ACC
mRNA-->UGG
tRNA -->ACC
GGA
What is the mRNA codon this DNA triplet

DNA --> CCT
mRNA-->? ? ?
Glycine, Glycine, Glycine
Determine the sequence of amino acids produced by this DNA sequence: CCACCGCCC
Glycine, Glycine
Determine the sequence of amino acids produced by this DNA sequence: CCACCGACT
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