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NASM: Chapter 7
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Terms in this set (65)
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint. AKA: The normal extension of a joint that allows for a full ROM.
Capability to be elongated or stretched
Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion. Also know as prime movers.
Muscles that act in the direct oppostion to agonists (prime movers).
Muscles that assist prime movers (agonist) during functional movement patterns. (think of them as Syncing together to get the job done)
Muscles that support or stabilize the body while the prime movers and synergists perform the movement pattern
Dynamic Range of Motion (ROM)*
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all planes of motion
Postural Distortion Patterns*
"Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances.
Note: The human movement system(HMS), also know as the kinetic chain, compromises the muscular, skeletal and nervous system. OPTIMAL ALIGNMENT AND FUNCTION of each component of the HMS is the cornerstone of a sound training program. If one or more segments of hte HMS are misaligned and not functioning properly, predictable patters of dysfunction develop.
-Postural distortion patterns: poor static or dynamic posture
-Poor Flexibility can lead to ""relative flexibility"" or altered movement patterns.
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
What can cause muscle imbalance?
Postural stress, emotional stress, cumulative trauma and poor training techniques
The simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist to allow movement to take place.
Reciprocal Inhibition example:
To perform an elbow flexion during a bicep curl-the bicep brachii- agonist, actively contracts while the triceps brachii-the antagonist muscle, relaxes to allow movement to occur.
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition*
The concept of muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist which inhibits its functional antagonist
Altered reciprocal Inhibition example:
A tight psoas (hip flexor) would decrease neural drive of the gluteus maximus (hip extender).
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
Synergistic Dominance example:
if the psoas (agonist) is tight, it leads to (altered reciprocal inhibition) of the gluteus maximus (antagonist muscle), which in turn results in increased compensation from the hip extensuion (hamstring complex, adductor magnus) aka (synergists muscles) to function for the weaken gluteus maximus. The faulty movement patterns above could lead to hamstring sprains.
The motions of joints in the body
altered joint motion
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
Arthrokinetic Dysfunction example
performing a squat with excessive external rotated feet (feet turned outward) forces the tibia (shin bone) and the femur (thigh bone) to also rotate externally. This posture alters length-tension relationships of the muscles at the knee and hips, putting the gluteus maximus in a shortened position decreasing its ability to generate force.
Futhermore the biceps femoris -hamstring muscle, piriformis-outer hip muscle, become synergistically dominant, altering the force-couple relationships- correct muscle activation, and ideal joint motion, increasing the stress on the knee and low back. With time, the stress associtated with arthrokinetic dysfunction can lead to pain, which further alter muscle recruitment and joint mechanics.
altered muscle lengths
Altered joint motions is caused by:
-Altered LENGTH-TENSION relationships
-FORCE-COUPLE relationships which affect the joint and cause poor movement efficiency.
Altered force-couple relationships
altered muscle activation
"Sensory receptors located in muscles and tendons that help determine muscle balance or imbalance. -mechanoreceptors include the muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs
Major sensory organ of the muscle that are composed of microscopic fibers that lie parallel to the muscle fiber.
Muscle Spindles (job) *
Muscle spindles are sensitive to change in muscle length and rate of length.
Function: to prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast, however, when a muscle on one side of a joint is lengthened-because of a shortened muscle on the opposite side, the spindles of the lengthened muscle are stretched. Thus information is transmitted to the brain and spinal cord, exciting the muscle spindle and causing the muscle fibers of the lengthened muscle to contract. This often results in micro spasms or a feeling of tightness.
1. Senses muscle lengthening
2. Contracts the muscle in response
3. Normal reaction to avoid injury
Muscle spindles example
"individual whose knees adduct and internally rotate during a squat exercise. The underactive muscle is the gluteus medius ( hip abductor and external rotator). The overactive muscle include the adductors (inner thigh) and tensor fascia latae (hip flexor and hip internal rotator). Thus one would not need to stretch the gluteus medius, but instead stretch the adductor complex and tensor fascia latae ( the tight muscles) which are pulling the femur into excessive adduction and internal rotation.
Golgi Tendon Organs
"Located within musculotendinous junction or the point where the muscle and tendon meet. Sensitive to changes in muscular tension and the rate of tension change. when excited, the Golgi Tendon organ causes the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from being placed under excessive stress, which could result in injury
Golgi Tendon Organs (job) *
1. Senses muscle tension
2. Relaxes the muscle in response
3. Normal reaction to avoid injury
Autogenic Inhibition *
"The process by which neural impulses senses tension are greater then the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles located within the SAME muscle. This neuromuscular Phenomenon occurs when neural impulses sensing tension are greater than the impulses causing muscle contraction. The phenomenon is termed autogenic because the contracting muscle is being inhibited by its own receptors. aka: the Golgi Tendon Organ overrides the muscle spindle
Autogenic Inhibition (Memory Jogger)
AH is one of the main principles used in flexibility training, especially in static stretching ( holding a stretch for a prolonged period). Holding a stretch creates tension in the muscle. (muscle spindles start to contract the muscle). This tension stimulates the GTO, which overrides muscle spindle activity in the muscle being stretched, causing relaxation in the overactive muscle and allowing optimal lengthening of the tissue. In general stretches should be held long enough for the GTO to override the signal from the muscle spindle (approx 30 seconds).
3 Intergrated flexibility continuum: *
1: Corrective 2: Active 3: Functional
outermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle.
form of flexibility that focuses on the fascial system of the body
"Self-Myofascial release (tidbit)
reduce trigger points (knots within muscles).The gentle pressure stimulates the GTO which relaxes the excited muscle spindles thus releasing the tension. Similar to a massage.
Self Myofascial release mechanism of action"
"Autogenic inhibition- A process that occurs when you place tension on a muscle and the GTO becomes excited and thus, activated. By applying gentle force to a knot , the elastic muscle fibers are re-altered from a bundled position into a straighter aligment with the direction of regular muscle fibers. The gentle massage of the foam roller stimulates the GTO to relax decreasing the muscle spindle contraction of the muscle.
1. Gastrocnemius/Soleus (calves)
2. Tensor Fascia Latae/ IT Band
5. Latissimus Dorsi
Static Stretching *
Passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20-30 seconds.
Static Stretching examples
1. Static Gastrocnemius stretch
2. Static Standing TFL Stretch
3. Static Kneeling Hip flexor stretch
4. Static standing adductor stretch
5. Static Latissimus Dorsi Ball Stretch
6. Static Pectoral stretch
7. Static Upper Trapezius/Scalene Stretch
Altered joint motion
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles. Aka: Golgi tendon organ overrides the muscle spindle.
Pattern Overload *
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stress on the body
Pattern Overload example:
sports, running, repeitive rountine in the gym, occupational (repeititive lifting or loading) or sitting at a computer day in and day out.
Davies Law *
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress
Davies law example
"Soft tissue is rebuilt with inelastic collagen matrix that forms in a random fashion (knots)".
Soft tissue rebuilds itself in a random fashion. These knots don't run in the same direction as regular muscle fibers and act as roadblocks and prevent regular muscle lengthening, causing relative flexibility. (aka- When the body seeks the path of least resistance during movement.
Self-myofascial release (SMR)
Rolling of the muscles to correct existing muscle imbalances, reduce trigger points which are knots within the muscle and inhibit overactive musculature.
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of seconds
Active Isolated stretching *
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion. AKA: Move a limb through a full ROM while the functional antagosists are being stretched.
Active isolated stretching examples:
"1. Active Gastrocenemius Stretch with Pronation and Supination
2. Active supine biceps femoris stretch
3. Active Standing TFL Stretch
4. Active kneeling hip flexor stretch
5. Active standing adductor stretch
6. Active Latissimus Dorsi Ball Stretch
7. Active pectoral wall stretch
8. Active Upper Trapezius/Scalene Stretch
4 Forms of Stretching Techniques
1. Self-Myofascial Release (SMO) Foam roller
2. Static Stretching
3. Active Stretching
4. Dynamic Stretching
Dynamic Stretching *
The ability to take the body through a full ROM without any compensations.
Dynamic Stretching examples
1. Prisoner squats
2. Multiplanar lunge with reach
3. Single-leg squat touchdown
4. Tube walking: side to side
5. Medicine ball lift and chop
1:Self-Myofascial Release 2:Static Stretching
1:Self-myofascial release (SMR: foam roller) 2:Active-isolated stretching
1:Self-myofascial release (SMR: foam roller) 2:Dynamic stretching
Which phase is corrective flexibility appropriate for?
Stabilization (phase 1) of the OTP model
Which phase is active flexibility appropriate for?
Phase 2, 3 & 4
Which phase is functional flexibilty appropriate for?
At what point in my workout should I use SMR (foam rolling)?
This is the first thing you should do, followed by the warm up.
At what point in my workout should I use static stretching?
When in phase one or when you need to focus on tight muscles
At what point in my workout should I use active stretching?
Phase 2, 3 or 4 or when you are looking to utilize your full ROM before working out.
At what point in my workout should I use dynamic stretching?
In phase 5 and when you want to incorporate a circuit style stretch into your warm up.
What is myofascial release?
Foam rolling your muscles
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
NASM: Chapter 13 Resistance Training Concepts*
NASM: Chapter 6
NASM: Chapter 5 Human Movement Science
NASM: Appendix D (Muscular System)
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