Judicial Branch

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Terms in this set (...)

Justice
member of the US Supreme Court and Maryland Supreme Court.
US Supreme Court
Highest Court in the United States.
Appeal
A request made after a trial, asking a higher court to decide whether or not the trial was conducted correctly. If the court decides the trial was not conducted properly then the case will be retried in a trial court.
Judicial Review
The ability of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. The right was confirmed (approved) in the Court Case Marbury vs. Madison in 1803.
Jurisdiction
The right of a court to hear a case. This is based on location and type of crime committed. For instance Citrus County courts can only hear cases dealing with crimes committed inside Citrus County, and not dealing with federal or state laws.
Original Jurisdiction
The power of any one court to hear a case first.
Supreme Court's Original Jurisdiction
The US Supreme Court's ability to hear cases involving disputes between states, and cases involving foreign representatives like ambassadors.
Writ of Certiorari
A document that states a higher court will hear the appeal of a lower court's decision. Supreme Court will only hear cases with a writ being accepted and applied for.
Majority Opinion
A decision reached by most of the members of the Supreme Court. It states the reasons why they agreed to the outcome of the cases.
Dissenting Opinion
This is written statement by the judges who did not agree with the outcome and write the reasons why they disagreed with the decision of the Supreme Court.
Trial Court
the local, state, or federal court that is the first to hear a civil or criminal case. This involves hearing arguments from both sides, and sometimes involves a jury.
Plaintiff
The person who accuses someone of a crime or wrong-doing. Also known as the prosecutor
Defendent
The person who is being accused of a crime or wrong-doing.
Jury
A group of citizens who hears and decides the outcome of a court case.
Rule of Law
Idea that the law applies to everyone. Confirmed in the case of Nixon vs the United States.
Criminal Law
Type of law that deals with the breaking of a law.
Civil Law
Type of law that deals with money or a wrong-doing.
Constitutional Law
Type of law that deals with the meaning of the Constitution, only handled in the US Supreme Court.
Verdict
The decision of the court case.
US District Court
The only Trial Court in the federal court system.
US Circuit Court of Appeals
The court that hears the appeal of the court decision made in the US District Court. No juries in an appellate court.
Chief Justice
The head Justice of the US Supreme Court. Oversees impeachment trials in the Senate, and speaks on behalf of the Supreme Court.
McCullough V. Maryland
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax federal institution
Marbury V. Madison
Established judicial review
Judicial Review
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

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