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42 terms

Joint & articulations

joint & articulations
STUDY
PLAY
joints (aka)
articulations
3 groups of joints
1. fibrous
2. cartilaginous
3. synovial
synarthroses
immovable joints
amphiarthroses
slightly movable joints
diarthroses
freely movable joints
2 types of cartilaginous joints
1. synchondroses
2. symphyses
synchondroses (3)
1. a type of cartilaginous joint
2. many are temporary structures & disappear during growth
3. Ex. epiphyseal plate
symphyses (2)
1. a type of cartilaginous joint
2. Ex. symphysis pubis & intervertebral joints
3 Types of synarthroses
1. syndesmosis
2. suture
3. gomphosis
syndesmosis
1. type of synarthroses (immovable joint)
2. Ex. between tibia & fibula
suture
1. type of synarthroses (immovable joint)
2. Ex. sutures are only between flat bones of skull
gomphosis
1. type of synarthroses (immovable joint)
2. Ex. a joint formed between a tooth & bony socket in jaw
synovial joints
1. One of three general groups of joints
2. all free movement & are diarthroses (freely movable)
3. Ex. elbow, shoulder & hip
General structure of synovial joints (1,2,3) 1/3
1. articular cartilage is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones
2. the joint capsule is a tubular structure that hold together the bones of a synovial joint.
3. The outer layer of the joint capsule consists of dense connective tissue.
General structure of synovial joints (4,5) 2/3
4. The inner layer of the joint capsule consists of a synovial membrane. This membrane produces synovial membrane.
5. Ligaments reinforce the joint capsule.
a. Synovial fluid has a consistency of uncooked egg white and functions to moisten and lubricate the smooth cartilaginous surfaces within the joint.
General structure of synovial joints (6,7) 3/3
6. Menisci are discs of fibrocartilage. These function to cushion articulating surfaces.
7. Bursae are fluid filled sacs associated with synovial joints. These structures are located between the skin and underlying bony prominences.
a. Bursae function to cushion and aid the movement of tendons that glide over bony parts or over other tendons.
6 types of synovial joints
1. ball-and-socket
2. condyloid
3. gliding
4. hinge
5. pivot
6. saddle
ball-and-socket synovial joint (3)
1. consists of a bone with a round head that articulates with a cup-shaped cavity of another bone.
2. A ball-and-socket joint allows a wider range of motion than any other type of joint.
3. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the hip joint and shoulder joint.
condyloid synovial joint (2)
1. consists of a condyle fitting into a fossa or cavity of another bone.
2. An example of a condyloid joint is between the metacarpals and phalanges.
Gliding synovial joint (2)
1. The articulating surfaces of gliding joints are nearly flat or slightly curved.
2. Examples of gliding joints are joints within the wrists and ankles and joints between the articulating surfaces of the vertebrae.
hinge synovial joint (2)
1. The structure of a hinge joint is a convex surface of one bone fitting into the concave surface of another bone. concave / convex
2. An example of a hinge joint is the elbow joint.
pivot synovial joint (2)
1. The structure of a pivot joint is a cylindrical surface of one bone rotating within a ring formed of bone and a ligament.
2. An example of a pivot joint is the joint between the dens of the axis and ring of the atlas.
saddle synovial joint (2)
1. The structure of a saddle joint is a convex surface of one bone articulating with a concave surface of another bone.
2. An example of a saddle joint is the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb.
flexion
is bending of a body part
extension
is straightening of a body part
hyperextension
is excess extension of a body part beyond the anatomical position
dorsiflexion
is movement at ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin, in other words as if you are pointing the toes toward your head
plantar flexion
is movement at ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin, in other words as if you are standing on tip-toe
abduction
is moving a part away from the midline of the body
ex. raise arm out to the side
adduction
is moving a part toward the midline of the body
ex. lowering raised arm to your side
rotation
is moving a body part around an axis; aka twisting
ex. twist head to side
circumduction
is moving a body part in a circular path, as in a pitcher's wind up and pitch
ex. moving your leg in a circle
supination
is turning the palm of the hand up (superiorly or anteriorly)
pronation
is turning the palms of the hand down (inferiorly or posteriorly)
eversion
is turning the foot laterally (out to the side) with the sole flattening
inversion
is turning the foot medially (in towards your side) with the sole raising
protraction
is moving a body part forward
ex. drawing shoulders forward
retraction
is moving a body part backward
ex. pulling shoulders back
elevation
is raising a body part
ex. shrugging shoulders
depression
is lowering a body part
ex. lowering raised shoulders
Menisci
are discs of fibrocartilage. These function to cushion articulating surfaces. located btw articulating surfaces
Bursae
1. are fluid filled sacs associated with synovial joints. These structures are located between the skin and underlying bony prominences.
2. function to cushion and aid the movement of tendons that glide over bony parts or over other tendons.